1) Some theorists argue that there may be no clear threshold for effects such as carcinogenesis & mutation. What arguments do you think they might put forward in support of this?
2) It is important to understand the physiological means by which toxic agents cross cellular membranes & enter the cells of human body. Define & describe both passive & active transport?
3) Definition of toxicology?
4) What do you understand by the term dose? How can you estimate it?
5) What do you understand by the term effect? How is it measured?
6) Using examples distinguish between local and systemic and acute and chronic effects?
7) What do you understand by the term dose – effect and dose – response relations?
8) What is the impact on this relationship if there is more than one effect of a chemical?
9) What do you understand by the term ‘threshold of effect’?
10) Define the terms toxico – kinetics and toxico – dynamics?
11) What factors influence chemical:
– Distribution and deposition
– Accumulation and elimination?
12) What do you understand by the term biological half time?
13) What is the significance, when setting threshold for adverse effects, of the fact that, broadly speaking, solid particulates have much longer biological half times than gases and vapours?
14) Briefly, what is the major underlying difference in body handling of a chemical between one and two compartment models of distribution and elimination?
15) Outline some general mechanisms of toxicity?
16) Describe a range of short and long-term toxicity testing methods?
17) Discuss the limitations of animal testing methods in the evaluation of human toxic potential of chemicals?
18) Outline a strategy for testing for carcinogenicity of industrial chemicals
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