Question 1 What is an Animal?
What is an animal? Include in your answer how animals are differentiated from other life forms. In particular, describe the similarities and differences between volvocine protozoa (like Volvox), members of the Phylum Porifera, and members of the Phylum Cnidaria that distinguish them as animals or non-animals. Include in your answer:
a. a definition that uniquely defines animals as different from all other organisms
b. a comparison of the sponge spongocoel and the cnidarian gastrovascular cavity
c. a comparison of the body walls of sponges and anemones with a description of cell types and their functions
Question 2 Lower Invertebrate Life Histories
Describe the life the histories of the Moon Jelly (Aurelia aurita), the Sheep Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica), and the Fish Tapeworm (Diphyllobothriumlatum). Include in your answer:
a. the methods of asexual in the three animals
b. a description of the different stages of life history of each
c. the advantages and disadvantages of asexual versus sexual reproduction
d. the strategies employed by each to assure the completion of the life history and the continuation of generations
Question 3 Advances of Higher Invertebrates
Describe each of the advances of annelids over flatworms by comparing the Tiger Planaria (Dugesiatigrina), and the Iridescent Phyllodoce (Phyllodocemultipapillata).
Question 4 Insect Successes
Insects are arguably the most successful group of animals in terms of diversity, biomass, geographic distribution, numbers . . . almost by any measure. What are the characteristics of insects which have made them the most successful group of animals and the most successful group of arthropods? Include in your answer:
a. a description of compound eye structure, how the image is processed by the eye and brain, how color vision is accomplished, and the differences between the eyes of nocturnal and diurnal insects
b. a description of gradual metamorphosis and complete metamorphosis and the advantages of complete metamorphosis over gradual metamorphosis
c. a description of the structure, function and advantages of the exoskeleton and wings
Question 5 Mollusc Successes
Describe the diversity of adaptations of molluscs that have contributed to their phenomenal success. Include in your answer:
a. the nature and production of the shells of abalone
b. feeding mechanisms of a gastropod (such as a sea hare), a bivalve (such as a clam), and a cephalopod (such as a squid).
c. mechanisms that control buoyancy in Sepia, Nautilus, Loligo and Octopus
d. mechanisms of color production and color change in squid
Following the essay Style Guide, list all sources used in writing your essay answers to the questions. Do not use in-text citations and do not use footnotes. Simply list your sources in this “Literature Cited” section.
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