I. Multiple choice questions. Please bold or underline the correct answer (1point each=50 points)
1. Several features, or properties, of living things may also be found in non-living things, such as fire. Of the following, which is the least likely to be found in non-living things?A. Consumption of energy-containing moleculesB. GrowthC. ReproductionD. HomeostasisE. Response to external stimuli
2. Suppose you conduct an experiment which simulates glacial recession over time. What is the dependent variable in this experiment?A. Glacial massB. SunlightC. The seasonD. Time
3. If life on another planet were fundamentally like life on Earth, the macromolecules of living things would be based on which element?A. CarbonB. HydrogenC. NitrogenD. OxygenE. Phosphorus
4. The effectiveness of a medication containing growth hormones is tested on a group of young male rabbits 3 weeks of age. The best control group would be:A. Any group of rabbitsB. A group of male rabbits, three weeks old, not given the medicationC. A group of female rabbits, three weeks old, not given the medicationD. A mixed group of male/female rabbits, three weeks old, not given the medicationE. No control is required; just measure whether the rabbits grew
5. Temperature is a measure ofA. The potential energy in a substanceB. How fast the molecule in a substance are movingC. The energy lost from a substance to its surroundings.D. How much heat is being absorbed by a substanceE. All of the above
6. Which of the following refers to a substance that has lost’ a carbon dioxide molecule?A. DenaturedB. PhosphorilatedC. DecarboxylateID. CarbonatedE. Oxidated
7. Which of the following reactions or pathways is catabolic?A. Converting glucose to carbon dioxide and water (cellular respiration)B. Making starch from many glucose monomersC. Photosynthesis, which builds glucose from carbon dioxide using energy from lightD. Making ATP from ADP and phosphate
8. One human disease is caused by a change in the DNA from GAA to GUA. This change is an example of:A. Crossing-overB. A meiosis errorC. A mitosis errorD. A mutation
9. During which part of the cell cycle is DNA polymerase most active?A. CytokinesisB. G1 phaseC. G2 phaseD. S phaseE. M phase
10. Which of the following correctly describes a buffer?A. A buffer converts an alkaline solution to neutralB. A buffer converts an acid solution to neutral.C. A buffer converts alkaline solutions to acid solutions.D. A buffer converts strong bases or acids to weak bases or acids.
11. Which term does not belong in this list?A. AcidB. VinegarC. Hydrogen ion donorD. pH 8E. Lactic acid
12. The process in which molecules spread randomly from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration is:A. FiltrationB. DiffusionC. ExocytosisD. Osmosis
13. Each of the following is a true statement about photosynthesis, exceptA. The light reactions produce ATP from sunlight energyB. The products of photosynthesis are used as reactants in cellular respirationC. The products of cellular respiration are used as reactants in photosynthesisD. Water is used during photosynthesis to capture the electrons released from excited chlorophyll pigmentsE. The products of the light reactions of photosynthesis are used to produce sugars in the Calvin cycle
14. During the process of cellular respiration, which is the final acceptor for electrons at the end of the electron chain?A. OxygenB. CarbonC. Carbon dioxideD. HydrogenE. Water
15. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used toA. Analyze a person’s fingerprintsB. Allow restriction enzymes to cut DNA at specific sequencesC. Create recombinant DNAD. Make many copies of a small amount of DNAE. Cut DNA in to small pieces
16. A family tree that is used to follow human matings that have already occurred is aA. Test crossB. KaryotypeC. Sex-linked recorID. DNA Analysis recordE. Pedigree
17. What would happen to a eukaryotic cell, if too much osmotic pressure develops within a cell?A. The cell would remain the same size, but the internal organelles would become dehydratedB. The cell would decrease in size, and could collapse.C. The cell would increase in size, and could lyse.D. Nothing, osmotic pressure does not impact the cell.
18. Which of the following statements is false?A. Individuals with the same phenotype may have different genotypesB. Mating between individuals with dominant phenotypes cannot produce offspring with recessive phenotypes.C. Mating between individuals with recessive phenotypes cannot produce offspring with dominant phenotypesD. Individuals with the same genotype might have different phenotypesE. All of the above are correct
19. Which statement about the inheritance of blood types in humans is most likely to be correct?A. Types A and O are codominant to type BB. Types B and O are codominant to type AC. Types A and B are codominant to OD. Type O is dominant to both type Aand type BE. Type A is dominant to B, O, and AB
20. Which of the following terms includes all of the chemical reactions that occur within a cell?A. Cellular respirationB. CatabolismC. Redox reactionsD. MetabolismE. Phosphorylation
21. Within a cell, energy released by electrons is often used to phosphorylate which of the following molecules?A. ADPB. ATPC. Pyruvate ionsD. OxygenE. NAD
22. All of the following apply to glycolysis exceptA. Occurs without oxygenB. Degrades glucose to H2O and CO2C. Ends with formation of pyruvic aciID. Occurs during fermentation
23. In which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?A. Processing of pyruvic acid for the Krebs cycleB. Electron transport chainC. GlycolysisD. The Krebs cycleE. All phases produce the same number of ATP molecules
24. The energy of the sun is converted into usable energy for the cell in the form of _________.A. ADPB. ATPC. GlucoseD. CO2E. electrons
25. The starting materials of photosynthesis are _____________A. Oxygen and glucoseB. Carbon dioxide and oxygenC. Carbon dioxide and waterD. Oxygen and waterE. Carbon and oxygen
26. What type of macro-molecule is frequently an enzyme?A. CarbohydrateB. Nucleic acidC. LipiID. Protein
27. In a metabolic pathway, a typical control mechanism is to have ________A. the final product inhibit the enzyme responsible for its on productionB. the final product inhibit an early stepC. a reactant inhibit a late stepD. a lack of reactant stimulate the pathway
28. The most important aspect of cellular respiration is that ___________________A. It is the process that occurs only in animal cellsB. It is the process that utilizes fat as its primary energy sourceC. It is the process that enables living organisms to utilize the energy stored in glucoseD. It is the only cellular process that yields ATP
29. The statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth isA. Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2B. Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2C. Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2OD. Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O
30. What is the function of the ribosome?A. DigestionB. RNA duplicationC. MobilityD. Protein synthesis
31. Carbohydrates are notA. Stored potential energyB. Made mostly of nitrogen and carbonC. Broken down by cellular respirationD. Made by producers
32. When celery is placed in a glass of pure water the solution inside its cells is _________ compared to the water.A. hypertonicB. hypotonicC. isotonicD. selectively permeableE. ready for diffusion
33. How many chromatids comprise a duplicated chromosome?A. OneB. TwoC. ThreeD. Four
34. Which of the following could not be a sequence of RNA?A. GCGUUUB. UAUGCGC. ATGCGTD. AUGCGUE. AAACUG
35. The product of meiosis includes which of the following?A. Haploid cellsB. Genetically unique cellsC. Four daughter cellsD. All of the aboveE. A. and C. only
36. In pea seed, yellow (Y) is dominant to green (y) and smooth (S) is dominant to wrinkled (s). What are the possible genotypes for the offspring of the following cross: YySS and YYSs.A. YYSS, YYss, yySS, yyssB. YS, yS,YS, ySC. Yy, SS, YY,S sD. YYSS, YySS,YYSs,YySs
37. In humans, the allele for dimples (D) is dominant. The allele for not having dimples (d) is recessive. If a woman (ID) and a man (ID) have four children, how many of the children will not have dimples?A. 0B. 1C. 2D. 3E. 4
38. Which of the following variations could be subject to natural selection?A. A dog with short legs due to malnutrition is able to crawl into holes better than his litter mates.B. A tree is not infested by a ground-dwelling beetle when the homeowner cuts the lower branches.C. A hyena is born with a spotted fur pattern that allows it to hide in the grass better than his litter mates.D. A pigeon learns that’s when its keeper comes near, it will be fed.E. All of these variations may be acted on by natural selection.
39. What do plants and animals have in common?A. They are both heterotrophicB. They are both autotrophicC. They are both prokaryoticD. They are both eukaryoticE. They are both hydrophobic
40. An ecologist is studying all the animals, plants, fungi, protists and bacteria, as well s the interactions among and between them in a forest. He is studying the ____________ in the forest.A. nicheB. biomeC. communityD. populationE. habitat
41. Microevolution is defined as:A. Changes in population sizeB. Changes in the frequency of alleles in the gene poolC. Changes in the composition of the populationD. Emergence of new speciesE. Changes in community size
42. A zorse is the offspring produced through interbreeding between a horse and a zebra. Zorses are often preferred for riding because of their physical shape, but they are sterile. According to Linnaean taxonomy, are zebras and horses classified in the same species?A. YesB. NoC. SometimesD. Not enough information to determine
43. Red rose color is incompletely dominant over white rose color. If a red rose is crossed with a pink rose, what percentage of the offspring will be pink?A. 100B. 75C. 50D. 25
44. Which of the following is support for the theory of evolution, which states that all life on Planet Earth arose from a common ancestor?A. All life on Earth shares a common organic chemistryB. All life on Earth has the same genetic materialC. All life on Earth has the same basic cellular structuresD. All life on Earth performs the same basic metabolic processesE. All of the aboveF. A, B, and C only
45. Themajority of climate scientists suggest that the current change in climate is caused predominantly by ________.A. An enhancement of the greenhouse effectB. A decreased reliance on fossil fuels for energyC. A thinning of the ozone layerD. A melting of the polar ice capsE. An increase in solar radiation
46. Which of the following is not an expected effect of global climate change?A. A rise in the sea levelsB. Flooding of coastal citiesC. Decrease in the size of glaciers and ice sheetsD. Increase in the size of glacier and ice sheetsE. More extreme weather
47. If a wolf eats a rodent which ate a small insect which ate a plant, the wolf would be a(n)A. AutotrophB. Primary producerC. Primary consumerD. Secondary consumerE. Tertiary consumer
48. Which of the following is not capable of evolving?A. A population of fruit fliesB. A population of asexually reproducing fruitfliesC. A rose bushD. The collective feral cats of a cityE. All the HIV in a single patient
49. Inheritable mutations, which may allow a population to evolve, are producedA. As a response to selection pressureB. By chanceC. By natural selectionD. As a response to environmental pressureE. By artificial selection
50. If you were to buy land to plant crops, which type of biome would your prefer?A. SavannahB. PrairieC. Tropical forestD. ChapparalE. Temperate forest
II. Matching of definitions and terms. Please place the correct number in front of each definition.
____ Characteristic of water which protects fish in a frozen lake____ Carbon makes a good backbone for creating diverse molecules.____ Structures found together in eukaryotic cells____ It is a metabolic taxicab’ which shuttles electrons.____ Chlorophyll pigments in green leaves absorb certain colors of the visible light waves.____ Protein synthesis follows a specific sequence of events.____ Both codons CCC and CCU code for proline.____ Corals harbor special guests in their bodies to feed them.____ Some time go, grazing livestock were introduced to the Savanna in Africa.____ In some areas, Conifer trees are very abundant.
1. cytoplasm and plasma membrane2. RNA ? DNA ? protein3. cohesion4. blue and red5. increasedfood production in times of famine6. temperate forests7. redundancy of the genetic code8. is good at forming ionic bonds9. bacteria10. DNA ? RNA ? protein11. decreased density at low temperature12. desertification13. NADH14. universality of the genetic code15. forms for covalent bonds16. ATP17. boreal forests18. green and blue19. photosynthetic algae20. ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum
III. True-False questions.
1. Humans are more likely to be infected by viruses after the viruses had a chance to multiply outside the body on surfaces touched by infected people.A. TrueB. False
2. Fossil evidence suggests that human ancestors arose one time in Africa.A. TrueB. False
3. During a time, when resources are abundant, one would not expect much evolutionary change to happen.A. TrueB. False
4. Once an adaptive feature appears, it remains in all the descendant unless the species becomes extinct.A. TrueB. False
5. Organisms which live in habitats with high levels of competition are more likely to produce defensive chemicals than those which live with little competition.A. TrueB. False
IV. Fill-in statements.
1. Scientific information called __________ collected from well-designed experiments should allow researchers to either accept or reject a null-hypothesis.
2. A(n) __________ is the fundamental structural unit of life on Earth.
3. Different versions of the same gene are called ___________ of that gene.
4. DNA evidence, fossil evidence, homology, and vestigial structures all provide evidence than humans and chimpanzees share a(n) _____________. (two words)
5. Closely related species of orchids never mate in the wild because they bloom at different times. This is an example of ___________. (three words)
6. Both algae and plants have the ability to ___________.
7. The raw material for evolution is __________.
8. _________ are specialized cells (ova and sperm) used for sexual reproduction.
9. The change in shape of an enzymes, due to excessive heat, is called __________.
10. Proteins in cells are assembled by structures called __________.
V. Brief essay questions: Please write a concise and succinct response to each one of the following questions; be sure to mark your answers with the correct essay number. I am looking for clarity and detail which reflects your knowledge of the subject. Always include appropriate examples, if warranted.
1.You have read that inorganic fertilizers contribute to water pollution and would like to make a switch from inorganic fertilizes to organic compost in your vegetable garden. A friend graciously gives you a truckload of her compost. As a good researcher and critical thinker you are not convinced that organic compost will yield the same results as the inorganic fertilizer you have used for many years with good results. To draw your own conclusion based on scientific evidence you decide to contact and experiment in your garden. State a good hypothesis, design an experiment (include test subjects, sample size, control(s), dependent and independent variables, type of data collected, and hypothetical results and conclusion. Does your conclusion support the hypothesis?
2.Describe the major land biome where you live in some detail. How have human activities changed the landscape, and how has this affected native species? Include specific examples.
3.North America is currently experiencing an unprecedented and rapid loss of species. What is believed to be the main trigger of these events? What law was passed in 1973 to aIDress this problem in the United States. What was the purpose of this law? Has it made a difference? Discuss and explain with examples.
4.Your local weather station alerts you to the fact that acid rain’ is falling in your area. You are worried about the well-being of your garden in your backyard and decide to temporarily cover up as many plants as you can with plastic sheets. Then you explain to your neighbors what acid rain’ is and how it negatively affects plants. Your discussion should include symbiotic relationships’.
5.You scoop up water from a nearby pond, because you are curious about the possible microbes who might live there. After looking at several slides that held drops of the sample, you noticed two different kinds of cells: Once kind was very small and had no defined internal structures; the other kind was much larger, and it contained several kinds of internal structures which were physically different from each other. Please name each cell and briefly describe their overall similarities and differences.
6. Before recombinant products were available, humans who needed hormones or other biological products, such as insulin, had to use products that were harvested from other humans and non-human animals. Can you think of specific health risks that might be associated with products that were not made with genetically engineered bacteria?
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