Role of phytochemical supplements in prevention of diseases | Homework Helpers

PART A

Prepare a powerpoint slides meeting below grading criteria covering topic Isoflavones and Polymethoxyflavones using recent original articles one from cell, frontier and nature. -recent articles related to the mechanisms of action, biological activities and health effects, establishing the dietary intake recommendations, measurements, bioavailability, epidemiology, etc., of phytochemicalsnot more than 20 slides. Work needs to be professional, visually appealing and use rectangular powerpoint slides that will allow you to cover all this concepts. AID your critical analysis at every step to reflect your understand on the topic.

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Part B

1. Discuss, from the mechanistic, evidence-based, and public health policy points of view, the possible role of phytochemical supplements in prevention of chronic diseases (e.g., cancer, obesity, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.).

As a starting point, use the editorial “Enough Is Enough: Stop Wasting Money on Vitamin and Mineral Supplements” in the Dec 2013 issue of Ann Intern Med (particularly, the statement: “Evidence is sufficient to advise against routine supplementation, and we should translate null and negative findings into action.”).

Try to separate evidence based on mechanistic knowledge from that based on evidence linking the intervention to a given clinical outcome.

See below the link to the editorial; also read original articles in this issue.

http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=1789253.

Look at the article published in: Nutrients 2013, 5, 5161-5192; doi:10.3390/nu5125161

2. Review and critique research articles provided in Content – PMFs. Do in vitro anticancer effects of the described PMFs warrant animal studies?

(Articles are attached in separate folder)

PART C

Provide with your critical comment and aIDitional insights citing the original articles atleast 5 in support to the each in depth discussion to the below?

a. Fruits and vegetables are said to contain biologically active phytochemicals that are likely to interact in a few ways to prevent disease and promote health. Fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants which is known to help prevent the body from oxidative damage induced by pro-oxidants. Studies regarding phytochemicals are becoming increasing popular in treating ailments such as cancer. Since there are so many phytochemicals, three have been chosen to discuss. With regards to lycopene from tomatoes, it was found to inhibit human cancer cell proliferation, and to suppress insulin-like growth factor-I-stimulated growth. This may open new avenues for lycopene studies on the role of the prevention or treatment of endometrial cancer and other tumors. It was also explained that lycopene also possesses inhibitory effects on breast and endometrial cancer cells, prostate cancer cells, and colon cancer cells.

With regards to ginger, gingerol has been studied for its anti-cancerous effects for the tumors in the colon, breast ovaries, and pancreas. A recent review by Oyagbemi et al. summarized the mechanisms in the therapeutic effects of gingerol which explains that gingerol demonstrates antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and antitumor promoting properties, decreases iNOS and TNF-alpha expression via suppression of I?B? phosphorylation and NF-?B nuclear translocation . Treating K562 cells and MOLT4 cells with gingerol, the ROS levels were significantly higher than control groups, inducing apoptosis of leukemia cells by mitochondrial pathway.

Epigallocatechin from tea can be beneficial in treating brain, prostate and cervical and blaIDer cancer. One of the proposed mechanism among many mechanism studied is that EGCG binds and inhibits the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xl , a protein involved in both cancer cell and normal cell survival, also EGCG suppresses AOM-induced colonic premalignant lesions, interferes with EGFR signaling, and inhibits hepatocyte growth factor-induced cell proliferation in human colon cancer cells. EGCG has shown inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), cyclin-dependent kinases, growth factor-related cell signaling, activation of activator protein 1 and NF-?B, topoisomerase I and matrix metalloproteinases.

b. Yes in vitro anti-cancer effects of the described PMF’s warrant animal studies as results from animal and cells studies are not generalizable to the entire human population as humans are not held in sterile/controlled environments. There are many differences between how isolated cells, animals and humans behave and “operate”, often what works for a particular individual might not work for another; these studies however offer good insight to human behaviors in situations where studies may be unethical.

In the second study posted regarding calcium mediated apoptosis in breast cancer cells the study explained that the results provide evidence for the ant proliferative and pro-aptotic activity of PMF’s in breast cancer cells and supports the hypothesis of MF-induced sustained increase in [Ca2+] is associated with induction of apoptosis in these cells. The findings also strongly imply that induction of apoptosis with PMFs requires activation of the Ca2+-dependent ?-calpain and the Ca2+/calpain-dependent caspase-12 and that hydroxylations of PMFs are critical for enhancing their pro-apoptotic activity. The treatment in this study was rendered only to cells but the looming question is will the treatment work the same on an organ or a human.

In the last study posted, the conclusion was that the findings obtained provided rationale for evaluating the role of PMF’s in the prevention and treatment of obesity. This mouse study provides grounds for investigating PMF’s in obesity treatment in humans but the results should definitely be generalizable to humans.

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