List two signs or symptoms of breast cancer | Homework Helpers

Assignemnt: Cancer and Genetics

Introduction

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In order for organisms to grow, repair, maintain, and reproduce, cells undergo cell division. Sometimes, cells uncontrollably divide, resulting in cancer. In the first part of the Cancer and Cell Division Lab, you will learn about normal cell division and will compare it to cell division that occurs in cancer cells. You will then visit a website to find out more information about cancer. You will learn why it occurs, why it kills, and new treatments that are being tested and used to treat cancer.

Objectives

1. Explain the process of cancer, the effects on the human body, the various types, and the risk factors involved.
2. Explain various treatments for cancer.
3. Explain the various stages of mitosis.

Materials

No extra materials will be required to complete this lab other than internet service.

Directions

• Go to the following website: http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_23/BL_23.html
• Follow the steps under the PROCEDURE section.
• Type all answers directly on the data sheet.
• Select Save As, and save this document using your last name and student ID as the file name.
• Upload the data sheet as a .doc, .docx, or .rtf file when you are finished.

While viewing the video, answer the following questions.

1. In which stage of cell division is the DNA copied?

2. During which stage of mitosis do the chromosomes line up in the miIDle?

After viewing the video, click on the Information tab in the bottom right corner. Answer the following questions.

1. In which of the cancer types listed, are males not at risk of developing?

2. Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for which type of cancer listed?

3. The risk for which type of cancer increases after the age of 55?

Continue following the directions under the PROCEDURE section, and complete the following table.

 

Interphase

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

% of Cells Dividing

% of Cells at rest

Normal Lungs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cancerous Lungs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Normal Stomach

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cancerous Stomach

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Normal Ovary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cancerous Ovary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continue following the directions under the PROCEDURES section and answer the following questions.

1. Based on your data and observations, what are some of the differences between normal cells and cancer cells?

2. Which type of cancer shows the most aggressive growth? Explain your answer.

3. When studying cell division in tissue samples, scientists often calculate a mitotic index, which is the ratio of dividing cells to the total number of cells in the sample. Scientists often calculate the mitotic index to compare the growth rates of different types of tissue. Which type of tissue would have a higher mitotic index, normal tissue or cancerous tissue? Explain.

Go to: http://www.cancer.org/

Click on Get Expert Information. Scroll down and click Cancer Basics. Read the sections Understanding Cancer, Cancer in the United States and Finding Cancer Information. After reading each of the Cancer Basics sections, go back to the Get Expert Information page and read about each major type of cancer: breast cancer, colon and rectal cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer and skin cancer. Answer the questions below.

1. How many people in the US get cancer each year?

2. What causes cancer?

3. Since there are many different types of cancer, how is cancer named?

4. List two signs or symptoms of breast cancer.

5. Can males develop breast cancer?

6. What is the most common type of cancer?

7. List two ways you could get involved and help fight against cancer.

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