Epidemiology Assignment Questions –
1. Make a table with two columns to compare and contrast the ways in which T cells and B cells recognise antigen, the antigens that are recognised by the two types of cell, and the ways in which the cells become activated. Aim to make at least five distinct comparisons.
2. BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) is a live attenuated strain of tuberculosis that is used in many countries to immunise against infection with M. tuberculosis. In very rare instances, the vaccine produces a disseminated infection that affects many organs; this generally occurs because the recipient of the vaccine is immunodeficient or immunosuppressed.
In a family from a MiIDle Eastern country, it is found that a girl and a boy, from a family of five children, have developed a disseminated infection with BCG following vaccination; it is suspected that these children are immunodeficient.
Comment on what kind of immunodeficiency these children might have, and how it prevents the immune system from controlling infection with BCG. Your explanation should be based on understanding how the immune system controls infections caused by mycobacteria.
3. (a) Briefly explain why IgG and IgA antibodies are generally of higher affinity than IgM antibodies.
(b) Despite this, IgM antibodies can be very effective in activating complement and promoting phagocytosis of bacteria. Provide an explanation for this observation.
4. A patient in hospital develops a fever and an acute infection of the upper respiratory tract. It is suspected that they may be suffering from infection with influenza A (H IN I), so a nasopharyngeal swab and a serum sample are taken. The hospital laboratory can do ELISA, RT-PCR, viral culture, haemagglutination and haemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) tests, and has suitable reagents available to carry out all/any of these assays to identify and type the influenza virus.
Briefly discuss which of these tests are most suitable for detecting a current infection with influenza A, and which tests could distinguish the strain of virus. Be sure to state which clinical sample would be used in which type of test.
5. Read the research paper by Santin et al., ‘In vitro activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citrants and its major component (citral) on Leishmania amazonensis’ (published in 2009 in the journal Parasitology Research, volume 105 (November), pages 1489-96).
Write about 800 words in total
(a) (i) In one sentence, state what the authors set out to determine.
(ii) Why did they consider that this research was necessary?
(iii) Summarise each of their three main findings and, for each one, briefly explain why the authors consider these findings to be important.
(b) (i) Describe the data presented in Fig. 1 of the paper and explain its relevance for developing drugs against Leishmania.
(ii) How do the authors account for the differences in the effectiveness of the essential oil (‘FA’) versus citral on parasite viability?
(c) The authors suggest several cellular targets and mechanisms by which the essential oil and citral damage and kill Leishmania parasites. List these cellular targets and summarise the evidence the authors present to support each mechanism of action.
(d) Give a brief evolutionary explanation for why plants such as Cymbopogon citratus contain compounds with anti-protozoan activity.
(e) (i) Draw the life cycle of Leishmania amazonensis, with numbers for each step, and then use short sentences to describe the most important stages.
A simple block diagram, or something that is hand-drawn and then scanned, is fine. (Hint: one way to adapt a figure is to combine several pieces of information into a single new depiction). If you adapt an existing figure, then you must cite where the original image(s) came from, and include a screenshot of the original(s) at the end of your answer.
(ii) Describe the various ways in which Leishmania amazonensis is adapted to life inside a human host.
Why Choose Us
Top quality papers
We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.
Professional academic writers
We have hired a team of professional writers experienced in academic and business writing. Most of them are native speakers and PhD holders able to take care of any assignment you need help with.
If you feel that we missed something, send the order for a free revision. You will have 10 days to send the order for revision after you receive the final paper. You can either do it on your own after signing in to your personal account or by contacting our support.
All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.
Original & confidential
We use several checkers to make sure that all papers you receive are plagiarism-free. Our editors carefully go through all in-text citations. We also promise full confidentiality in all our services.
24/7 Customer Support
Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.
Try it now!
How it works?
Follow these simple steps to get your paper done
Place your order
Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.
Proceed with the payment
Choose the payment system that suits you most.
Receive the final file
Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.
No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.
You are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper. Our academic experts will gladly help you with essays, case studies, research papers and other assignments.
Admission help & business writing
You can be positive that we will be here 24/7 to help you get accepted to the Master’s program at the TOP-universities or help you get a well-paid position.
Editing your paper
Our academic writers and editors will help you submit a well-structured and organized paper just on time. We will ensure that your final paper is of the highest quality and absolutely free of mistakes.
Revising your paper
Our academic writers and editors will help you with unlimited number of revisions in case you need any customization of your academic papers
Hello The Homework Helpers Support