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1.Who were the main supporters of the populist Peronist movement?

A.the middle class


C.the workers

D.the elites

2.The rise of populism in Latin America in the mid-twentieth century has its roots in which of the


A.rapid urbanization and rising social inequality in the midst of global economic depression

B.spread of Marxist literature throughout Latin America

C.increased manufacturing of consumer goods

D.the 1929 world crisis

3.What sort of tactics did the nationalists of the postwar period adopt to win elections?

A.lobbying Congress

B.giving money to large landowners in exchange for their support

C.flying around the country to participate in huge rallies and making ample use of the radio

D.seeking foreign support

4.Who was Raúl Prebisch?

A.a Latin American economist who supported US-foreign investment in Latin America

B.a Latin American who fought along with Che Guevara and Fidel Castro in Cuba, in 1958

C.a Latin American priest who created a community-based organization

D.a Latin American economist who defined Latin America’s economic problems in terms of

center and periphery

5.Which was the most wealthy, industrialized, and urbanized country in Latin America by the






6.Which of the following statements best reflects Eva Peron’s ideas on the role of women in


A.Women and men are equal.

B.Women’s highest aspiration should be marriage and motherhood.

C.Women should not be able to vote.

D.Women are more important than men.

7.The United States disliked Perón’s government. Why was this the case?

A.because of his nationalist ideals

B.because he preferred to trade with Europe

C.because Perón was a Marxist

D.because Perón was not a religious person

8.Which was the most prominent characteristic of the Mexican Institutional Revolutionary Party


A.that it never lost

B.that it was directly supported by the United States

C.that it remained true to the values of the Mexican Revolution

D.that it was only supported by people of indigenous descent

9.Which of the following did the populist movements identify as their enemies?

A.communists and socialists

B.the oligarchy and foreign economic interests

C.military dictators and nationalists

D.peasants and people of indigenous descent

10.Why did Marxist ideology rise among Latin American nationalists?

A.They were influenced by Soviet Russia.

B.They dreamed of a perfect future without inequality

C.The Cuban Revolution played a role.

D.They found Marxist historical analysis very persuasive.

11.Why were Latin Americans so disenchanted with the United States during the 1950s and

throughout the Cold War?

A.because of US refusal to sell them sufficient quantities of cars and refrigerators

B.because American foreign aid went mostly to Europe

C.because of the excessive interest the United States had in coffee, bananas, and sugar

D.because of US control over ECLA and the OEA

12.How did the United States react to the Bolivian revolution of the early 1950s?

A.by sending troops to overthrow the newly installed leftist government

B.by suspending economic and diplomatic relations with the new government

C.by constructively engaging the new regime and sending US aid

D.by arming a proxy force to fight a counter-revolutionary war

13.The Cuban Revolution deeply worried the United States because:

A.it was based on Soviet Russia–inspired Marxism.

B.it was unclear which side the new Cuban government would be on during the Cold War.

C.it was sponsored by the New York Times.

D.It could easily spread to Argentina through Che Guevara and Tania.

14.Did the Communist Party play a significant role in the lead up to the overthrow of Fulgencio


A.It played no role at all.

B.It played a minor role.

C.It played a fundamental role at the beginning, but later stopped supporting the revolution.

D.It played a fundamental role by aiding the revolution and training the revolutionaries.

15.What did the followers of “Liberation theology” believe in?

A.They believed that Catholicism was not the solution to the problems of the region.

B.They believed that existing power structures worked against the poor.

C.They believed that Latin American structures worked well.

D.They believed that communism was the answer to all Latin American problems.

16.Which of the following is not true about the rule of Justo Rufino Barrios in Guatemala?

A.He ruled between 1873 and 1885

B.He broke up the power of the Catholic Church

C.He was considered a conservative “caudillo”

D.Under his regime, more lands were opened up for the coffee economy

17.Which of the following American officials or businessmen argued that the policies of

President Jacobo Arbenz were the result of him being a “foreigner manipulated by foreign


A.United Fruit President Sam Zemurray

B.President Dwight D. Eisenhower

C.Vice President Richard M. Nixon

D.Secretary of State John F. Dulles

18.What group formed the main core of the MR-13 guerrilla organization?

A.rebel Army officers

B.union leaders

C.peasant farmers

D.university students

19.Which of the following individuals was called the “Butcher of Zacapa?”

A.Colonel Enrique Peralta Azurdia

B.President Julio Mendez Montenegro

C.General Kjell Laugerud Garcia

D.Colonel Carlos Arana Osorio

20.Which of the following policies is associated with the presidency of Efraín Ríos-Montt?

A.He used the aftermath of the 1976 earthquake as a pretext to restart the

counterinsurgency agenda.

B.He felt a “scorched earth policy” was needed to protect “la patria” (The Fatherland)

C.The peasant populations must be moved into “development poles” and form “civil

patrols” to fight the guerrillas.

D.The coffee economy must be expanded, in order to promote economic development,

which prevents the development of the conditions for guerrilla activity.

21. Which of the following Guatemalan guerrilla fronts subscribed to Che Guevara’s “foco”

model of guerrilla warfare?




D.The MR-13

22. Which of the following Guatemalan presidents was actually a civilian leader during the

period of military rule from the 1950s through the 1970s?

A.Julio César Méndez Montenegro

B.Miguel Ydígoras Fuentes

C.Kjell Laugerud García

D.Romeo Lucas García

23. Which of the following statements is not true about Rigoberta Menchú?

A.Her experiences recounted in her 1984 autobiography helped to turn international public

opinion against the Guatemalan military junta.

B.Her father was killed in an attack on the Spanish Embassy in 1980.

C.She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992.

D.She was elected President of Guatemala in 1996 following the peace treaty to end the civil


24.Who was the “radio priest” in the Detroit area, whose fascist and anti-Semitic views

coincided with those of Henry Ford?

A.Charles Sheeler

B.Charles Coughlin

C.Linton Wells

D.Edward Cutler

25.How would you characterize the type of music that was broadcast during the “Sunday

Evening Hour” for the Fordlandia staff and workers?

A.”hot time Jazz”

B.”wholesome American music”

C.”classic opera arias”

D.”Brazil samba sounds”

26.What news did plant pathologist James R. Weir present to Edsel Ford, which totally shocked

many Fordlandia officials?

A.He said that the government of Getulio Vargas was ready to seize Fordlandia to

establish a new wildlife sanctuary

B.He said that squatters from Argentina and Paraguay were about to invade Fordlandia,

thus a military presence was needed to protect the plantation

C.He felt that the plantation would never achieve profitability, and that the company move

operations 70 miles downriver to Belterra.

D.He said that deposits of gold had been discovered along the banks of the Tapajos River,

and that the company should transform the plantation to a mining operation.

27.In the Manaus industrial parks zone, which American firm opened its first offshore facility in






28.What was the relationship that the Latin American Marxist revolutionaries established with


A.They did not know about Russia at all.

B.They were heavily aided by Russia.

C.The Marxist revolutionaries of Latin America almost never depended on Russia.

D.The Marxist revolutionaries of Latin America followed Russia’s orders.

29.How did the upper class feel about Marxist ideas?

A.They profoundly disliked them.

B.They could not care less about them.

C.They adopted them as their own.

D.They adopted some Marxist ideas as their own, but rejected others.

30.Who was the most important American ally against communism?



C.the Catholic Church

D.the Latin American armed forces

31.How was the national security doctrine supposed to function?

A.Ideally, the United States would handle communist invaders from outside the

hemisphere and Latin American armies would deal with any domestic communist opposition.

B.The United States would take care of all communist threats by having a standing army in

each Latin American country.

C.The United States would not get involved in the national affairs of any Latin American


D.Ideally, Latin American armies would handle communist invaders from outside the

hemisphere and the United States would take care of communist threats in each particular


32.Which of the following was a direct consequence of the national security doctrine?

A.Latin American armed forces lost power.

B.It drove Latin American countries to identify more closely with Europe.

C.Most Latin American armed forces started to take an active role in their own local and

national affairs affairs.

D.The United States lost any control it had over Latin American nations.

33.Which statement best describes the Alliance for Progress aid policy?

A.It was meant to reduce military involvement in Latin America.

B.It was created to respond to the military governments.

C.It was created to supplement the guerrillas in Latin America.

D.It was meant to reduce revolutionary pressure by promoting Latin America’s economic


34.Which statement best describes the Peruvian military regime of the 1960s–1970s?

A.It was an important element of the larger trend toward anticommunist governments in the


B.It was exceptional because it was not motivated by anticommunist ideas.

C.It was similar to the Chilean regime of General Pinochet.

D.It was actively opposed by the Cuban government.

35.Why did Latin America’s authoritarian military governments ultimately collapse?

A.They did not succeed in their own anticommunist crusades.

B.They believed it was time for a democratic change.

C.They collapsed due to their own mistakes.

D.People voted against them.

36.Where were the “last battles” of the Cold War fought?

A.Cuba and Haiti

B.Central America

C.Mexico and Brazil

D.Chile and Argentina

37.How did Costa Rica avoid the polarization and violence typical of the Cold War era in

Central America?

A.It had a large indigenous population.

B.It was not as politically explosive as other neighboring countries.

C.Exploitative colonial hierarchies were a burden to the country.

D.It had a very strong army.

38.Why was the victory of the Sandinistas in Nicaragua during the late 1970s possible?

A.Cuba assisted them.

B.A widespread rebellion began when the Somozas killed a prominent conservative


C.The United States withdrew military aid to Somoza’s National Guard.

D.They joined forces with Guatemala, El Salvador, and other Central American nations.

39.What did El Salvador’s Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), a leftist guerrilla

army, do during the 1980s?

A.They defeated the local army and took power.

B.They failed to defeat a Salvadorian army trained and equipped by the United States.

C.They participated in elections and managed to win the presidency.

D.They were defeated by the US army.

40.Who instituted the Alliance for Progress?

A.Lyndon B. Johnson

B.the Brazilian military government

C.John F. Kennedy

D.Richard M. Nixon

41.Which Latin American country had the best record of constitutional governments succeeding

each other?





42.Which statement best describes the Brazilian government that started in 1964?

A.It was an undemocratic government under the guise of a constitutional government.

B.It was a democratic government.

C.It was a socialist government.

D.It was an undemocratic government that did not care about appearances.

43.In which of the following countries did the military not take over in the 1980s?





44.How did the people of the Medellín cartel react when they were threatened with extradition

to the United States?

A.with “narco-terrorism”

B.by attacking the United States

C.by withdrawing their financial support of the US army

D.by killing Pablo Escobar

45. What is the nickname for Colombia’s national soccer team?

A.“Las Aguilas Negras” (“The Black Eagles”)

B.“Los Caballos Salvajes” (“The Wild Horses”)

C.“Los Cafeteros” (“The Coffee Growers”)

D.“Los Jaguares de la Selva” (“The Jaguars of the Jungle”)

46. What organization created the “Economic Commission for Latin America and the


A.United States State Department

B.United Nations

C.The World Bank

D.International Monetary Fund (IMF)

47. Marcos Pérez Jiménez was the dictator of which nation?





48. Who was Victor Jara?

A.A guerrilla leader who fought alongside Fidel Castro and Che Guevara

B.A Chilean singer that was part of the “nueva canción” movement

C.A Peruvian priest that was part of the Liberation Theology” movement.

D.The Colombian soccer player who was assassinated in Medellín following the 1994 World


49. The Montoneros were a guerrilla front that operated in which nation?





50. Which of the following statements is not true about Mexico’s PRI (Partido Revolucionario

Institucional) party?

A.Many Mexicans jokingly refer to it as a “one party dictatorship.”

B.It was able to maintain political support among Mexicans due to nationalism and oil


C.It held on the presidency this summer when its candidate José Antonio Meade


Andrés Manuel López Obrador and his MORENA party.

D.It returned the presidency in 2012 with Enrique Peña Nieto after twelve years of PAN rule

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