University of California Irvine obesity and Its Negative Effects Paper This is a good start for the paper, but there is still quite a bit of work to do in order to build a paper that is narrow enough and detailed enough for this assignment.
Right now, the paper spends quite a bit of time describing obesity and its negative effects, but this part of the paper is really just rehearsing aspects of obesity that an educated US audience will already be familiar with. Those first three paragraphs should be shortened into one paragraph max.
After that, the paper addresses possible factors that contribute to obesity, but they are very general and don’t get to the core of a particular debate. Most of the things you talk about in this paper are things that have already reaches the level of consensus, so there isn’t any debate there. Even the last two paragraphs that mention the government and other organizations that run programs to improve obesity are far to general for this paper.
In order to have a strong paper, you should limit the entirety of your focus to a single contributing factor and then trace the conversation that surrounds that particular factor. To give you an idea of how much more narrow your paper needs to be, here are some examples of past student papers that have been successful: school lunches and obesity among elementary school children; soft drinks and obesity among young adults; standing desks and obesity among elementary school children. Find something equally as narrow and specific so that you can make an interesting and original argument.
As you rewrite this paper, use your background section (the few paragraphs after the introduction) to establish that there is a connection between a particular behavior and obesity, rather than rehearsing the existing consensus that obesity is bad. Then show that there is a current conversation around the various possibilities for fixing the behavior that you identified. Conversations Project Peer Review
The purpose of the Conversations Project is to identify a specific, narrow problem and to provide
background and an overview of the current conversation.
Is the problem specific and narrow? Can you find the author’s thesis (or purpose statement)?
Does the paper explain all of the different points of view for the issue in an ethical, unbiased
Introduction: a few possible rhetorical moves
Why the topic is important and timely
Provide definitions for key words and ideas (this may also be done later)
Does the organization make sense on a large scale? Is there a way to order your points so that
the paper would flow better?
Are there good transition words and sentences between each new paragraph and idea?
Does the paper summarize the different points of view in the conversation?
Does the paper establish connections between the different points of view? How does each
article build on, contrast with, or fill in a gap of the other articles?
Make an obvious transition
Restate your main point
Re-emphasize the importance of the subject
Look to the future
Has the writer used at least 6 sources (including 3 scholarly sources & NO popular sources)?
Is everything cited correctly in text? “citation” (24). OR “citation” (Little 45).
Here are some examples of Works Cited entries:
Rose, Mike. “Blue Collar Brilliance.” They Say I Say, 3rd ed, edited by Gerald Graff, Cathy
Birkenstein, and Russel Durst, W. W. Norton, 2015, pp. 272-83.
Wilkes-Gillian, Sarah, et al. “A Randomised controlled Trial of a Play-Based Intervention to Improve
the Social Play Skills of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).” PLoS One,
vol. 11, no. 8, 2016, pp. 1-22, EBSCO, doi: 10.137/journal.pone.0160558.
The Impact of Antiabortion Legislation on Low Income Women in the United States
The year is 2019. In the United States, a record 127 women hold seats in Congress, and female
students on college campuses outnumber males. Women have made enormous strides in igniting
social and political change, whether protesting the pay gap or speaking up against sexual
predators. They are educators, advocates, leaders, and fighters, paving the way in everything
from science to sports. The year is 2019, and when women see something they want, they fight
for it, and they win. Yet, when it comes to healthcare, women, particularly those of lower
incomes and lesser means, still have not completely won the fight over ownership of their own
The right to accessible abortions is currently one of the most controversial debates in the United
States, and “after a series of conservative appointments to the U.S. Supreme Court, a growing
number of states have moved to drastically restrict access to abortion” (Law). Abortion, the
termination of a pregnancy by removal of an embryo or fetus through medical or surgical means
before it is developed enough to survive outside the uterus, is a critical aspect of women’s
healthcare. There have been several attempts to change current abortion policies, with
“legislators [having] introduced nearly 400 anti-choice measures in states across the country”
(Shea) within the past six months alone; perhaps The Alabama Human Life Protection Act has
been the most infamous in recent times. The Alabama bill, which was signed into law on May
15th of this year, threatens the landmark 1973 Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade (which protects
a woman’s right to abortion without excessive governmental restriction) in that it “would ban
abortion in the states, with no exceptions for rape or incest…with exceptions only if the mother’s
life is threatened” (Reilly). The shocking piece of legislature has marked the state as somewhat
radical, the measure being “the most far-reaching effort in the nation this year to curb abortion
rights” (Williams, Blinder). However, Alabama is not alone in this endeavor, with states such as
Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, and Georgia following suit. The notable “Heartbeat Bills”
being signed into law in these states, which ban abortion as soon as a “fetal heartbeat can be
detected” (Law), also criminalize healthcare providers, ensuring that physicians who provide the
procedure face several years in prison. Additionally, some “Conservative state lawmakers [have]
introduced total abortion bans, laws requiring physicians to lie to their patients about the efficacy
of ‘abortion reversal,’ laws criminalizing certain methods of abortion, and laws forcing
unnecessary regulations on abortion providers” (Shea). Given that abortions have been
performed for thousands of years, even before adequate medical technology was developed,
these laws are a huge step backward in that, if enacted, they potentially will simply prevent safe
abortions from occurring, which would only succeed in putting women’s lives at even greater
While it is evident that many argue that abortion is an unethical procedure because it essentially
prevents the miracle of life, I argue that this is not the case, that abortion is a fundamental pillar
of women’s healthcare, and that all women deserve unalienable reproductive rights. As Ravi,
author of the article “How the U.S. Health Insurance System Excludes Abortion”, eloquently
states, “Access to reproductive healthcare can empower people to be able to continue their
education, puruse a fulfilling and economically secure career path, and choose if and when to
have children.” The legislation being enacted in this country to restrict abortion access oppresses
all women, and prevents them from having the freedom to choose what is best for their personal
lives, bodies, and health. While these policies hinder the rights of all women, it is pertinent to
delineate that they do not equally harm all women: generally speaking, women who are either of
lower incomes or stricken by poverty are more severely disabled by these laws. This is because
they in particular lack the means to everything from comprehensive health insurance to access to
contraceptives (Gelman, Rosenfeld, Freedman, Steinberg, Borrero). Alarmingly, “an estimated
75% of women who get an abortion are living at low income levels…with nearly half in
households that earn less than the federal poverty level” (Johnson), and it is unacceptable that the
vast majority of women who will be severely impacted by antiabortion legislation may be
powerless against these new consequences. Thus, low income women in the United States are
prevented from having safe access to abortions due to the nation’s ever changing political
climate, which leads to declinations in their health, well being, and standards of living.
Low income women in the United States are particularly hindered by restrictive abortion access
for a plethora of reasons. One major determining factor in their access to abortion is the type of
health insurance they are eligible for. As Roberts (et. al) states, “Under the Affordable Care Act,
millions of women in the United States will have new access to private and public healthcare
coverage. However, in the case of abortion care, new federal- and state-level restrictions on
private and public insurance coverage of abortion likely limit the potential gains in coverage for
abortion care and some who currently have such coverage may lose it.” Recent changing
abortion access policies are restricting many health insurance plans. For instance, one in five low
income citizens depend on Medicaid, the largest payer for healthcare in the United States
(Rudowitz, Garfield, Hinton). This is concerning because “insurance and Medicaid coverage for
abortion is increasingly limited by state and federal regulations as well as insurer coverage
policies, [and] in many states hundreds of thousands of women are left without coverage
options” (Salganicoff, Sobel, Ramaswamy). When these types of insurance are either the only
programs low income women can afford or are eligible for, the type of healthcare they receive is
dependent on the policies of their providers. This indicates that a poverty-stricken woman
seeking an abortion may not have the means to undergo the procedure, while a middle or upper
class woman with health insurance under a private provider will. Low income women are
disproportionately disabled because their lesser economic means equate to fewer choices, and
In addition to health insurance eligibility disparities between low income women and women of
greater means, the fast-changing abortion policies particularly hinder low income women
because these policies are enacted in certain states. While several states are adapting to more
restrictive abortion laws, these changing are not occurring in every state thus far; what is
particularly concerning is that it has been found that “many of the states with the most restrictive
abortion laws ranked near the bottom in maternal and infant health incomes and in the bottom
half of states in clinical care access for women and infants” (Johnson). Many of these states also
are among the highest ranking for proportion of citizens living in poverty. This highlights that
these states do not provide low income women or their infants with adequate support on any
level of healthcare; women who live in these states are inevitably at risk for complications and
setbacks as they attempt to receive care.
This further indicates that low income women who live in places where anti-abortion laws are
particularly aggressive are disadvantaged because they may not have the option of traveling out
of state to areas where abortion policies are more lenient, thus preventing them from having the
procedure done at all, and forcing them to have a child that they may not be financially or
emotionally stable enough to care for. If low income women do attempt to travel out of state for
abortions, there are several hardships they must endure. For instance, it has been found that
“women of lower socioeconomic status [are] more likely to have to travel longer distances”
(Barr-Walker, Jayaweera, Ramirez, Gerdts), and baseline inconveniences that women endure
while traveling, such as the “cost of travel expenses, which include the cost of transportation,
accommodation, childcare expenses, and lost wages” (Barr-Walker, et. al) are heightened for
those of lesser means. This is exemplified by the fact that “the cost of a first term abortion can
rage from $300 to $600” (Keneally), half a month’s worth of wages for some people. These
burdens can be dangerous to women’s health, because the many logistical and financial
challenges can “[delay] women from accessing care in the first trimester [of pregnancy]” (BarrWalker, et. al). This is concerning because the risks associated with abortion only grow the
longer the pregnancy is carried out, with the chances of complications, and even death,
increasing: The longer the mother waits, the more the fetus develops, and the more complicated
the surgery becomes. As Karkowsky states, “The finding that increasing gestational age equals
increased risks of all kinds of pregnancy termination has been found though many studies…the
risk of death from termination of pregnancy [increases] exponentially–by 38 percent–for each
additional week of gestation.”
(-Have paragraph here about children brought up in poverty, which shows what happens if
poverty stricken women are forced to give birth rather than given abortions/how this affects
quality of life for mother and child)
In addition to low income women being disabled by current abortion access laws due to
monetary restrictions, they, along with all other demographics of women, face extreme judgment
and backlash thanks to the huge stigma that remains around abortion. As Gelman (et. al) explain,
“[Despite] nearly one-third of U.S. women [having] at least one abortion…abortion remains
highly stigmatized. Specifically, women having abortions are commonly devalued and
marginalized, often because of perceptions that they are violating social norms, including
cultural constructs of femininity, such as women’s expected role as mothers.” Many women who
consider undergoing the procedure feel that they cannot, or should not, because of the pressure
that they face from their families, social circles, and society in general. While it ought to be
understandable that women should not feel that they are committing a crime for not wanting a
child, the truth is that the choice to have an abortion is an emotional one, and there is plenty of
opposition to those considering to undergo the procedure. Women who consider or receive
abortions can undergo vast amounts of stress and anxiety. It has been found that “some women
do experience sadness, grief, and feelings of loss following termination of a pregnancy, and
some experience clinically significant disorders, including depression and anxiety” (Reardon).
The current movements and protests in the United States that fight for antiabortion laws and
attempt to shame low income women into keeping a child they are not ready to care for only
succeed in worsening the psychological states of women who need the procedure. While the
stigma surrounding abortion may not disappear anytime soon, when lawmakers push for radical
change in total bans and Heartbeat Bills, they aid in the deterioration of the mental health and
wellbeing of women who just want control over their lives.
Despite the notion that abortion is an extremely important medical procedure that should be
available to low income women, there are ample reasons that countless people support the
opposite, and are in favor of abortion restrictions in the United States. Antiabortion arguments
often stem from religious beliefs, from the idea that life begins at conception, from disdain for
what is believed to be the “[intentional] harm of another human” (Lowen). It can be difficult for
women who come from religious backgrounds to defy the norms they were raised with;
antiabortion beliefs are prevalent in many different religious affiliations, for a plethora or
reasons. For instance, “among conservative Protestants…abortion is often seen as an affront to
motherhood and pronatalism” (Bird, Begun, McKay), and that “Catholics adherents typically
demonstrate the least support for abortion legality and reproductive rights” (Bird, Begun,
McKay). The fact that our current president, Donald Trump, is a member of the Republic party,
which generally is composed of those who are pro-life, heightens opposition to abortion rights
around the nation. Despite the rather large following behind the pro-life movement, just because
women may personally be opposed to the concept of abortion does not mean that they should be
barred from having the choice to have it. Findings from the study “Abortion Stigma Among
Low-Income Women Obtaining Abortions in Western Pennsylvania: A Qualitative Assessment”
(Gelman, et. al) show that some women still did not believe in abortion despite undergoing the
procedure. For instance, one 24-year-old participant stated, “I don’t believe in abortions at
all…And now I have to do something that I really don’t believe in.” Women such as her may
personally feel that abortion is morally wrong, but still need access the procedure despite this
belief. It has also been found that women who were denied access to the procedure and
proceeded to give birth “[became] less supportive of legal abortion and more likely to believe
abortion is morally wrong” (Woodruff, Biggs, Gould, Foster), despite previously wanting
abortions themselves. Thehe authors of this article,“Attitudes Toward Abortion After Receiving
vs. Being Denied an Abortion in the USA”, claim that this is due to the “psychological process
of post-decision consolidation…defined as an attempt to resolve cognitive dissonance through
post hoc reassesment of a decision or life event in order to increase the attractiveness of the
chosen alternative and decrease the attractiveness of the rejected option”, and I believe that this
highlights that increasing abortion restrictions lead to negative connotations of the procedure
itself, and play a part in spreading cultural disdain for abortions. While deep-seated, pro-life
beliefs are the reason for nationwide new policies in the first place, it is evident antiabortion laws
and strict health insurance plans aid in supporting these beliefs.
Professor Jean Little
Nutrition and Physical Activity in Relation to Obesity Prevention
Obesity is generally a condition in which an individual has accumulated an abnormal
amount of fat, leading to excess weight. According to a recent analysis, statistics indicate that
obesity is one of the serious health issues affecting contemporary society. For instance, current
studies point to the fact that the population of people who are obese is higher compared to those
who are underweight globally. Almost13 percent of the total adult population in the world are
affected by this problem. This percentage translates to almost two billion individuals aged above
eighteen years. Over the recent past, obesity was commonly known to affect the adult
population. However, the current trend is significantly changing, and the younger generation is
increasingly getting affected. For example, almost forty million children below five years of age
were suffering from obesity in 2016. Nearly three hundred millions of children and adolescents
between five and 19 years also suffered from the condition at the time. These statistics reveal
that in the recent past, the prevalence of the disease among the younger population has
With the condition seemingly affecting both children and adults, health studies reveal that
obesity has significant adverse impacts both to the individuals, their families, and the community
at large either directly or indirectly. Obesity has serious negative effects on the health of an
individual. Individuals suffering from obesity are likely to develop other health conditions such
as high blood pressure diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. When these conditions are combined
with their current obese state is expected to lower the quality of their health. If not properly
managed, these conditions may worsen and lead to death. Current statistics reveal that at least
two million people lose their live year globally due to obesity and related disease. Other than
physical health problems, several studies also point out the fact that obesity can lead to severe
mental conditions. For example, obesity is likely to lead to the stigma, which in turn can trigger
increased depression, anxiety, and also lower self-esteem. Obesity-related stigma is more severe
in children compared to Adults. Studies indicate that obsess children are more likely to get
bullied. When these young people a get abused by their peers due to their weight, it triggers the
feeling of shame that quickly lead to depression, low self-esteem, and eventually can graduate to
suicide. Weight-based attitudes from teachers, on the other hand, influence the relationship
between the students and teachers and therefore, can lead to poor academic outcomes among the
Obesity also has a broad swath of dangers that have adverse effects on the society,
economy, and national productivity. For instance, by 2005, the United States, the health costs of
obesity estimated at two hundred billion in 2005. This figure was expected to rise the flowing
years as the cases of obesity also continued to grow. This cost only includes the money incurred
directly on medical care…
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