Select the pbr322 plasmid | Homework Helpers

Virtual Lab 1: Virtual Microscopy
Lab Observations:
Lab Answers:
A. Estimate the size of:
1. An E. Coli cell. : 0.5 x 2 micrometers
2 A mitochondrion. 0.5 – 10 micrometers
3. A Red Blood cell. 6-8 micrometers in diameter
4. A hepatitus virus. 28 nanometers in diameter
5. A water molecule. 1 nanometer or 10- 9 meters 
B. Observe the various Cell types and learn to distinguish between Bacterial cells, Plant cells (1, 2), and Animal cells (1, 2, 3) 
• 1. Observe and describe three differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 
-Prokaryotic cells are small because they don’t have all normal cell. Prokaryotic cells are less than 5 micrometers, whereas eukaryotic cells are more than 10 micrometers.
-In Prokaryotic cells, the DNA is circular and doesn’t have protein; in the eukaryotic cells, the DNA is linear (it doesn’t have an end), and they are associated with protein to create the chromatin.
-Prokaryotic cells don’t have nucleus or any membrane bound organelles which cause their DNA to float around the cell. Eukaryotic cells have nucleus and other membrane bound organelles.

• 2. Observe and describe three differences and three similarities between plant and animal cells. 
Three differences:
-Plant cells have chloroplasts pigment for making their own food; the animal cells don’t have it because they depend on available food.
-Plant cells are rectangular; the animal cells are round.
-Plant cells have a cell wall; the animal cells don’t have cell wall.
Three similarities:
-they both have nucleus which contains chromosomes.
– They both have mitochondria.
-They both have cell membrane which permits nutrient and waste to enter and exit.
C. Form a hypothesis
1. Hypothesize about how you might be able to sort a mixed population of cells into prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Try to be practical, build on your understanding of the differences between the two cell classes.
2. Hypothesize about a means to separate out plant cells from a mixed population of eukaryotic cells.

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Virtual Lab 2: Cellular Processes
Lab Observations:
Lab Answers:
A. Bacterial Growth. 
1. Estimate how long it takes for this population of bacteria to double. Hint- this population 
doubles multiple times during the duration of this recording. 

B. Cellular reproduction
1. Estimate the percentage of time that a constantly developing cell spends in interphase. 
2. In a random selection of 100 such cells, estimate the number that would be undergoing mitosis
at any given time. 
3. In a couple of paragraphs describe the basic differences between mitosis, meiosis, and binary 

C. Cellular metabolism
1. In a paragraph or two compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration. 
2. Describe the ecological relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. 3. Hypothesize about what might happen if a large number of producers were suIDenly removed from the biosphere. Where might carbon accumulate if the ratio of number of producers to consumers was markedly reduced? 

Virtual Lab 3: Genetics
Lab Observations:
Lab Answers:
A Phenotype and Genotype of Dragons. You do not have to be able to access the Dragon website to answer these questions. 
1. Define genotype and phenotype.
2. What is an allele?

B. Drosophila Lab. Enter as a guest. Buy and then breed a mutant black bodied female with a wild type (i.e. standard) male. 
1.Describe and explain the characteristic of the first generation (F1) of flies. Is the black bodied characteristic dominant or recessive?
2. Assume the black body female’s genotype to be bb and the wild type male’s genotype to be WW and fill in the following Punnet square. Are your breeding results consistent with what you expect from this assumption and the logic of the Punnet square?

3. Breed two of these F1 flies. To do this select a male and a female from the results of your first cross and put them in the breeding jar. Describe and explain the characteristics of the second generation (F2) flies. 
4. Use a Punnet square to predict the ratios of a cross between two Wb individuals. Is this consistent with your experimental observations?

C. Genetic Disorders Library. Describe the three main classes of genetic disorders and give an example of each.


Virtual Lab 4: Electrophoresis 

Lab Observations:

Lab Answers:
1. On what basis is electrophoresis able to separate molecules? 
2. What are the lengths of the three DNA bands that you produce in this lab?

B. Electrophoresis. 
Select the pBR322 plasmid (a circular piece of DNA used as a cloning vector) to analyze (menu in upper left hand corner of the simulator). You will then see a diagram of the circular plasmid DNA along with the points along the length of the plasmid where the various restriction enzymes (EcoR I, Ple I, Hinc II, and Bgl I) will cut the DNA. For instance notice that the enzyme EcoR 1 only cuts the plasmid at one location at the top of the diagram, whereas the other enzymes cut the plasmid at other places. To analyze the DNA we cut it up with different enzymes and slowly piece together an understanding of the entire sequence. 
Load each lane as follows: 
• Lane 1 with Bgl 1
• Lane 2 with EcoR 1
• Lane 3 with Hinc II
• Lane 4 with Ple I
• Lane 5 with predetermined molecular weight markers.
Run the gel and describe and explain the number of bands in lanes 2 and 4.

C. Human Blood Types and Immune System
Complete the following Table

Blood Type Genotype Antibodies present Can receive blood from type(s)
O +
O –
A +
A –
B +
B –
AB +
AB –

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