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250 words and 1-2 scholarly references.


1) Juan Guerrero

Re: Topic 4 DQ 1 (Obj. 4.1)

Self-efficacy is a person’s belief in their own capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments (APA, 2019). A person’s self-efficacy reflects on one’s own confidence in the ability to exert control over one’s own behavior, social environment, and motivation (APA, 2019). Self-esteem is defined as the degree to which the qualities and characteristics contained in one’s self-concept are perceived as positive. It shows or reflects how one feels about their own physical appearance, if they are proud of their accomplishments and believe in their own capabilities, and if they use their values to help them succeed (APA, 2019). The difference between these terms is that people with low self-esteem may be discontent with their appearance and may not feel attractive. Self-efficacy on the other hand relates more on how well an individual perceives his/her own abilities to do well in a career.

I believe that self-efficacy is more importance because the cognitive self-evaluations that one goes through influences all manner of human experience, including the goals that we strive for, the amount of energy and time we expend toward goal achievement, and the likelihood of attaining particular levels of behavioral performance (APA, 2019). These things are important to understand because it helps a child identify how strongly they feel towards achieving their goal of becoming either a police officer, attorney, counselor, or a dentist for example. I belief that self-efficacy also helps a person identify whether their career choice is one that they will devote 100% of their time to achieving.

American Psychological Association (2019). Teaching Tip Sheet: Self-Efficacy. Retrieved on July 30, 2019 from: https://www.apa.org/pi/aids/resources/education/self-efficacy

2) Charles Roberts

Re: Topic 4 DQ 1 (Obj. 4.1)

According to Brown and Lent (2013), self-efficacy refers to more of a judgment related to how one can perform a task, one’s capabilities, and sets of beliefs of performing demands and activities. Self-efficacy and self-esteem are often confused and are quite different, especially when considering career-related areas. Self-esteem is the feeling of one’s self-worth and self-love and is ma more universal concept that is not related to how one performs tasks (Brown & Lent, 2013). Although both ideas are essential to the overall positive perception of one’s self, it is most crucial to instill onto children self-efficacy in terms of career choice. The reason for choosing self-efficacy for careers is based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory and Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy. The self-efficacy concept of the theory is important because of the influence of the belief system and one’s beliefs in capabilities in a combination of experiential influences that will give the individual confidence and drive to do good using skillsets (Brown & Lent, 2013). Reinforcing a child’s self-efficacy through encouragement and praise to strengthen their beliefs in skills will bring the ability to pick careers they will excel at, find satisfaction in what they do career-wise, and progress towards their goals with a high standard for themselves (Brown & Lent, 2013).


Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. (2013). Career Development and Counseling (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3) Kenneth Cole


Re: Topic 4 DQ 2 (Obj. 4.3)

Students please find below a list of potential resources provided for your benefit as you research support for your response to the discussion question. Please do not feel limited or obligated to using these alone. More current research is alwas accepted.

Adachi, T. (2013). Occupational Gender Stereotypes: Is the Ratio of Women to Men a Powerful Determinant? Psychological Reports, 640-650.

Blogs.stlawu.edu. (2019). Margret Thatcher, Judith Butler and the Real Housewives | Global Cultural Studies 2013. [online] Available at: http://blogs.stlawu.edu/evegs302sp2013/?p=963 [Accessed 24 May 2019].
Brown, S., & Lent, R. (2013). Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work 2nd ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Brown, S. & Lent, R. (2013). Social Cognitive Career Theory from Career Development and Counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work (2 nd ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Retrieved from https://viewer.gcu.edu/CY6KD4.

Carter, Cynthia & Steiner, Linda. (2004). Critical readings: Media and gender. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Cartwright, M. (2019). Women in Ancient Greece. [online] Ancient History Encyclopedia. Available at: https://www.ancient.eu/article/927/women-in-ancien… [Accessed 26 May 2019].

Fletcher, E. (2017). How Favorite TV Shows Influence Career Choices. Retrieved from https://www.thehrdirector.com/business-news/hr_in_business/favourite-tv-shows-influence-career-choices/

Forbes. (2017). Gender Bias At Work — Why Men Call Forceful Women ‘Hysterical’ And Try To Silence Them. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.forbes.com/sites/kathycaprino/2017/06/15/gender-bias-at-work-why-men-call-forceful-women-hysterical-and-try-to-silence-them/amp/

Gutsell, J., & Remedios, J. (2016). When men lean out: Subtle reminders of child-raising intentions and men and women’s career interests. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 67, 28-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2015.09.007

Johnson, S. (2004, April 20). Frasier Online Episode Guide: Episode 11.20 – And Frasier Makes Three. Retrieved from https://www.frasieronline.co.uk/episodeguide/seaso…

Keresman, P. (1957). Constructive Employee Relations in Police Departments. Labor Law Journal, 8(8), 556.

Kerpelman, J. L., Shoffner, M. F., Ross-Griffin, S., 2002, African American mothers’ and daughters’ beliefs about possible selves and their strategies for reaching the adolescents’ future academic and career goals. (2002). JOURNAL OF YOUTH AND ADOLESCENCE, 31(4), 289-302.

Korsh, A. (Writer), & Bray, K. (Director) (June 23rd, 2011). Pilot [Television series episode]. In D. Liman (Producer), Suits. New York, NY: USA Network.

Lauzen, M.M. (2018). Boxed In 2017-18: Women On Screen and Behind the Scenes in Television. September. Retrieved from https://womenintvfilm.sdsu.edu/research/.

Movies, TV and Celebrities. (n.d.). Retrieved June 18, 2017, from http://www.imdb.com/

Raskoff, S. (2019). Everyday Sociology Blog: Gender, Power, The Real Housewives and The Help. [online] Everydaysociologyblog.com. Available at: https://www.everydaysociologyblog.com/2012/01/gend… [Accessed 24 May 2019].

Rudman, L., & Phelan, J. (2010). The Effect of Priming Gender Roles on Women’s Implicit Gender Beliefs and Career Aspirations. Social Psychology, 41(3), 192-202.

Smith, S.L., & Choueiti, M. (2011). Gender disparity on screen and behind the camera in family films: The executive report. Los Angeles, CA: Geena Davis Institute for Gender and Media. See also: Smith, S.L., & Cook, C.A. (2008). Gender stereotypes: An analysis of popular films and TV. Los Angeles, CA: Geena Davis Institute for Gender and Media. Smith, S.L., Pieper, K.M., Granados, A., & Choueiti, M. (2010). Assessing gender-related portrayals in top-grossing G-rated films. Sex Roles, 62, 774-786.

The-artifice.com. (2019). Sterotyped: Women in Reality TV | The Artifice. [online] Available at: https://the-artifice.com/sterotyped-women-in-reali… [Accessed 24 May 2019].

The Big Bang Theory Fan site. 2017. Retrieved from the website on 6/19/2017. https://the-big-bang-theory.com/characters/?src=menu_sidebar

Witt, S.D. (2000). The influence of television on children’s gender role socialization. Childhood Education v. 76 no5. Retrieved from http://www2.lewisu.edu/~gazianjo/influence_of_television_on_child.htm

Women On The Map. (2017). Have Women’s Roles in Media Influenced The Real World? Retrieved from: http://www.womenonthemap.org/media-culture/2017/4/12/have-womens-roles-in-media-influenced-the-real-world

World Wrestling Federation. (2018). Total Divas. Retrieved from: http://www.wwe.com/shows/totaldivas


4) Maria Gonzales

Last week

Please summarize what you learned from last week.

(2 questions we went over last week were, 1) What are some of the areas of a client’s life that might help a counselor develop/identify patterns of mental illness in a case conceptualization? How does the client’s developmental stage help guide treatment and interventions? and 2) How do patterns of mental illness differ according to population? Name examples where one psychological symptom could be interpreted in two different ways based on age/gender/identified problem.)

5) Kylee Palmer

Re: Topic 4 DQ 1 (Obj. 4.3)

The process of assessment involves quick screenings (i.e. Beck’s Depression Scale), gathering informed consent, gathering information regarding family history, family dynamics, mental health information, etc. The gathering of information is detailed to cover any and all clues to mental illness diagnoses or hints of past trauma. Level of care is also assessed based on each client’s individual need. Following gathering information, the next step is the initial process of diagnosing. The assessment is to review the nature of the client’s current situation, identify any ongoing/current problems and one’s own abilities.

Typically following an assessment is the provisional diagnosis, although, more information is still needed to solidify that a client meets criteria. Diagnosing someone takes time and is an ongoing process in therapy. The documentation of diagnoses will use the DSM-5 codes which are the ICD-10-CM code.

Lastly, the treatment planning process occurs. A clinician will complete a “master problem list” to help illustrate and prioritize any issues a client discussed with them (“Case Formulation”, n.d.). Next, a clinician will choose appropriate and achievable goals. The overall goal is to lessen or eliminate symptoms “that prevent the client from filling basic life roles and taking care of basic life responsibilities and functions” (Schweitzer & Rubin, 2015, p.109). Treatment plans also include how change will be measured. Measuring changes/outcomes is beneficial for both the counselor and client to demonstrate their accomplishments. Treatment plans tie together diagnostic implications, assessment data, and case conceptualization. The treatment plan will be written up and discussed with the client. Writing treatment plans also serves to demonstrate accountability that will substantiates their work when needed. It is important to discuss the finalized treatment plan with your client to ensure they are on board and agree. If they do not agree, the plan needs to be adjusted. If a client does not buy into their own treatment plan and goals, why would they want to continually attend therapy? We want them to feel invested in positive change as well.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.

“Case Formulation and the Diagnostic Process,” (n.d.). Grand Canyon University. Retrieved from:https://lc.gcumedia.com/mediaElements/gcu-sequence-application/v3.1/#/showcase/sequence/39/view

Schweitzer, A. M., & Rubin, L. C. (2015). Diagnosis & Treatment Planning Skills: A Popular Culture Casebook Approach (2nd ed.).

6) Jeanette Limoli

Re: Topic 4 DQ 2 (Obj. 4.4)

As a counselor, the therapist has several different theories at their disposal. The therapist theory of choice should be determined by which theory would better assist the client with achieving their overall goals. The particular theory chosen by the therapist is supposed to be considered as a road map to better assist the client in their troubled areas. Based on which theory the therapist chooses to implement, the goals and objectives are influenced by the theory being applied. Conceptualization of the problem or what the client need are gathered, then the therapist should utilize their experience or training to select the appropriate theory that they see fitting for the presenting problems. The interventions would be the strategies used to enhance the client’s ability to be successful after learning to apply the strategies to their daily life.

According to the textbook, “treatment planning provides a road map for reaching desired therapeutic outcomes and is the tool by which counselors put their assessment and diagnostic impressions, and case conceptualization and theoretical approach, to work” (Rubin & Schwitzer, 2014). The counseling theories used in therapy could dramatically alter treatment goals. For example, if a therapist is using cognitive behavior therapy, the treatment goals would be written in a manner that the client is required to challenge their automatic thoughts. To assess the effectiveness of the client challenging or altering their automatic thoughts would be quantified using the scaling system. Another instance is solution focused therapy. The goals would be altered because the client would have to be assessed on their ability to apply solutions to future problems. That would make it difficult for the therapist to determine if they have reached their goals in the present day.

Schwitzer, A. M., & Rubin, L. C. (2014). Diagnosis and treatment planning skills: A popular culture approach (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN-13: 9781483349763

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