Eastern Oklahoma State College Titration of Vinegar Lab Report 1-Follow the instruction 2-Do not copy and past from anywhere 3-YOU MUST USE KIT I upload

Eastern Oklahoma State College Titration of Vinegar Lab Report 1-Follow the instruction

2-Do not copy and past from anywhere

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3- Write the Notebook. which is one pages maximum. explains the experiment, what you did, etc. 1004 GENERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
DETERMINATION OF ACETIC ACID IN VINEGAR
PURPOSE:
To measure the total acid concentration in a specific brand of vinegar
and to determine if the vinegar meets the minimum acetic acid content
specified by commercial law.
The percent acetic acid will be calculated to test the authenticity of the
total acidity declared on the vinegar’s label.
INTRODUCTION:
Vinegar (French for sour wine) is formed by aerobic bacteria oxidizing grain alcohol to acetic acid
and water. More generally, vinegar can be defined as a solution composed of acetic acid
(HC2H3O2), water, and, perhaps, other substances. To be sold in stores as vinegar, this solution
must contain at least four grams of acetic acid per 100 mL of solution.
The method used to measure the total acidity of the vinegar being studied is an analytical chemistry
technique called an acid-base titration. A titration mixes two solutions which contain reactants for
a known chemical reaction under conditions such that:
a) the point at which both reactants have been completely consumed by the known
reaction can be detected (end point)
b) the amount of one reactant can be calculated from the known concentration of
reactant in a standard solution, the volume of standard solution used, and the
balanced known chemical equation.
For an acid-base titration, the known chemical reaction in general is:
acid + base ? water + salt
(1)
and for the titration of the vinegar in this experiment the following specific reaction will be used
to calculate the acetic acid content of the vinegar sample:
HC2H3O2(aq) + NaOH(aq) ? H2O(l) + NaC2H3O2(aq) (2)
Sodium hydroxide will be the standard reactant solution for this titration, and acetic acid the
calculated unknown reactant.
The end point in this experiment will be detected with an acid/base indicator. An acid/base indictor
is a colored substance with two or more different colors depending on the value of the pH of the
solution. Indicators are also very weak acids or bases and react with added acid or base if no other
base or acid is present in a solution. Phenolphthalein is the indicator used in this experiment, and
phenolphthalein is colorless in acid and neutral solutions but is red in basic solutions. The
phenolphthalein will change color with the addition of a single drop of sodium hydroxide if no
other acid (acetic acid for this experiment) is present in the phenolphthalein-sodium hydroxide
solution.
1
Another important concept in this experiment is concentration. Concentration refers to the
composition of a solution and may be expressed as either the ratio of solute/solvent or solute/
solution. Two units of concentration expressing the latter ratio are:
Molarity (M) = moles of solute/liters of solution
(3)
% by mass = (mass of solute/mass of solution)×100%.
(4)
and
Molarity is a convenient laboratory unit that delivers for a measured the volume of solution a
known number of solute molecules (i.e. moles of solute). Percent is a familiar concept to most
people and for this reason percent by mass is used on many labels. Both of these units will be used
in this experiment.
MATERIALS
125-mL Erlenmeyer Flask
100-mL Beaker
Electronic Balance
Supplies in Bag 6:
30-mL Syringe Dropping Bottle of Phenolphthalein
Bottle of 0.200 M Sodium Hydroxide
Additional items not included:
Commercial Vinegar Solution
Piece of white paper for background
SAFETY
•
•
•
•
•
Wear your safety goggles and gloves (if available) at all times while conducting this
investigation.
Read all the instructions for this laboratory activity before beginning. Follow the
instructions closely.
Chemical Safety
o Phenolphthalein is an alcohol based solution. Keep chemical away from any heat
or flame sources.
o Acetic acid and sodium hydroxide are corrosive. In the event of contact with
skin or eyes, the affected area should be immediately rinsed with water for 15
minutes.
Do not eat, drink, or chew gum while performing this activity. Wash your hands with
soap and water before and after performing the activity.
Clean up the work area with soap and water after completing the investigation. Keep pets
and children away from lab materials and equipment.
PREPARATION
1. Read through the Procedure.
2. Obtain all materials.
3. Clean and sanitize work area.
2
PROCEDURE
1. Place you 125-mL Erlenmeyer Flask on the electronic balance and record the mass of the
dry-empty flask.
2. Dispense 5.00 mL of vinegar into the Erlenmeyer Flask using your 5-mL Volumetric Pipet.
3. Record the exact mass of vinegar added.
4. Add approximately 50 mL of distilled water to the Erlenmeyer Flask after recording the mass
of vinegar solution.
5. Add 5 drops of phenolphthalein to the vinegar solution. Take photograph of flask as the start
point of the titration.
6. Transfer approximately 30 mL of 0.200 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to your 100-mL
Beaker. This solution will be used to fill the syringe.
7. Fill the syringe with 1 M NaOH solution.Try to minimize the amount of air in the syringe.
Record the initial volume of NaOH solution in the syringe to the nearest 0.1 mL in Data
Table 1 for Vinegar Sample 1. Read the volume of the syringe at the edge of the plunger.
8. Place the Erlenmeyer Flask containing the vinegar solution on the white sheet of paper. The
white background will make the color change more noticeable.
9. Add NaOH from the syringe in 0.5-mL increments, swirling the flask between each addition
until a color change persists for a few seconds after the addition of the NaOH.
10. Add NaOH dropwise from the syringe, with constant swirling, until a single drop of NaOH
causes a color change that persists for a few seconds after the addition. This indicates that the
end point has been reached.
11. Once the end point has been reached, record the final volume of NaOH in the syringe. Take
photograph of flask as the end point of the titration.
12. Calculate the total volume of NaOH that was required to reach the end point and record the
data.
13. Dispose of the titrated vinegar sample in the sink.
14. Rinse the 25-mL flask three times with water, dry the flask.
15. Repeat steps 1–14 two more times.
3
Titration of Vinegar Lab Report
(30 Points)
Name: ____________________________________
Fill in all data within the data sheet below. Be sure that each measurement includes units and is recorded with
the correct number of significant figures.
DATA SHEET
Concentration of sodium hydroxide _________________M
Brand of Vinegar __________________
Declared acidity on bottle of Vinegar ___________________ %
I
II
Volume of Vinegar
__________
__________
__________
Mass of Vinegar and Flask
__________
__________
__________
Mass of Flask
__________
__________
__________
Mass of Vinegar
__________
__________
__________
Final Syringe reading (NaOH)
__________
__________
__________
Initial Syringe reading (NaOH) __________
__________
III
__________
Volume of NaOH used
__________
__________
__________
Molarity of Vinegar
(show work on pg 2)
__________
__________
__________
Mass of Acetic Acid (show
work on pg 2)
__________
__________
__________
1
% (w/w)Acetic Acid in Vinegar __________
(show work on pg 3)
__________
__________
Perform the following calculations. Be sure to show your work, include units in your calculations, and report
answers with correct significant figures and units.
Chemical Reaction of aqueous Acetic Acid (acid component in vinegar) with aqueous sodium
hydroxide to form liquid water and aqueous sodium acetate.
HC2H3O2(aq) + NaOH(aq) ? H2O(l) + NaC2H3O2(aq)
1. For Trial 1: Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide (Molarity):
___________________
Volume of Sodium Hydroxide Used
___________________
Moles of Sodium Hydroxide Use (show calculation)
___________________
2. For Trial 1: Based on the Balanced Chemical Reaction:
Moles of Acetic Acid Neutralized (show calculation)
___________________
Volume of Vinegar Solution Pipetted into flask
___________________
Calculate the Molarity of the Acetic Acid in
vinegar for Trial I. (show calculation)
___________________
2
3. For Trial 1: Moles of Acetic Acid Neutralized
___________________
Molar Mass of Acetic Acid
___________________
Mass of Acetic Acid in Vinegar Solution
(show calculation)
___________________
4. For Trial 1: Mass of Acetic Acid in Vinegar Solution
___________________
Mass of Vinegar Solution Added to Erlenmeyer Flask
in Step 1 – 2
% (w/w) Acetic Acid in Vinegar for Trial I
(show calculations)
___________________
___________________
5. Average % (w/w) Acetic Acid from three Trials.
6. Density of your Vinegar Solution and Determining %(w/v) for Trial 1:
Mass of the Vinegar Solution Added to Erlenmeyer Flask
In Steps 1 – 2
___________________
Measured Volume of Vinegar Solution added by
Pipet
3
___________________
Density of the Vinegar Solution (show calculation)
Using your Density of the vinegar solution and
%(w/w) (from Part 4 of the Calculations), what is
the %(w/v) of acetic acid in your vinegar solution
(show calculation)
___________________
___________________
Discussion Follow-up:
Answer the following questions relating to your lab today:
1.
Does the vinegar studied meet the commercial law specification of a minimum of 4 g of acetic acid per 100
mL of vinegar? Explain using your data.
2.
Has the vinegar supplier truthfully reported the percent acidity? Explain using your data.
4

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