CEGR 325 Penn State University ? Cone Penetration Experiment Lab Report Hello, I am attaching you some files to help you writing the introduction, backgrou

CEGR 325 Penn State University ? Cone Penetration Experiment Lab Report Hello, I am attaching you some files to help you writing the introduction, background, method and analysis, and discussion. one file for the checklist of the report and the requirements. Another file is the experiment. Another file has the data and results section completed. I am also providing you a sample.it’s just writing introduction, background, testing method, and discussion based on the data. data is already given Report
Introduction:
Background:
Testing and Analysis Method:
Data and Analysis:
Tip Stress vs. Depth
Tip (ksf)
0
0
5
Depth (ft)
10
15
20
25
30
100
200
300
400
Sleeve Stress vs. Depth
Sleeve (ksf)
0
0
5
Depth (ft)
10
15
20
25
30
2
4
6
Friction Ratio vs. Depth
Friction Ratio (%)
0
0
5
Depth (ft)
10
15
20
25
30
1
2
3
4
5
Equivalent SPT N-Values
vs. Depth
Equivalent SPT-N
0
0
5
Depth (ft)
10
15
20
25
30
10
20
30
40
Soil Type vs. Depth
Soil Type
0
0
5
Depth (ft)
10
15
20
25
30
5
10
Depth (ft)
Soil Description
Average Phi (degree)
0.0045 – 0.755
0.773 – 0.788
0.807 – 0.822
0.843 – 2.360
2.360 – 2.360
2.360 – 2.360
2.360 – 10.163
10.177
10.192 – 10.210
10.228 – 11.991
12.0043
12.0223
12.0403 – 12.394
12.412 – 12.412
12.498 – 13.647
13.662 – 14.349
14.370 – 15.463
15.482 – 15.790
15.808 – 15.860
15.874
15.896
15.910 – 16.268
16.282 – 16.453
16.466 – 16.672
16.690 – 17.011
17.030 – 17.099
17.114 – 18.109
18.126 – 18.352
18.367
18.382
18.400 – 18.477
18.492 – 19.965
19.979 – 20.142
20.162 – 20.543
20.561 – 20.813
20.828
20.843
20.864 – 20.877
20.895
20.909 – 20.973
20.990
21.0079
21.026 – 21.060
Silty Sand
Sandy Silt
Sand
Sandy Silt
Silty Sand
Sandy Silt
Silty Sand
Sandy Silt
Silty Sand
Sandy Silt
Sand
Sandy Silt
Sand
Sandy Silt
Sand
Sandy Silt
Silty Sand
Silt
Clayey Silt
Silt
Clayey Silt
Silt
Silty Sand
Sandy Silt
Silty Sand
Sandy Silt
Silty Sand
Silt
Clayey Silt
Silt
Clayey Silt
Silt
Clayey Silt
Silt
Clayey Silt
Silt
Clayey Silt
Silt
Clayey Silt
Silt
Clayey Silt
Silt
Clayey Silt
30
31.333
31
31.224
32
30
30.412
30
32
31.353
32
32
32
32
32
31.867
30.941
0
0
0
0
0
32.455
32
32.300
32
32.533
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Average Cohesion
(ksf)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3.621
4.365
3.530
4.424
3.792
0
0
0
0
0
3.777
4.300
3.483
4.212
3.0886
3.567
2.847
3.409
2.662
3.304
2.664
3.363
2.660
3.251
2.600
3.239
21.080
21.096 – 21.113
21.134
21.155 – 21.173
21.191 – 21.802
21.817 – 22.256
22.274 – 22.466
22.480 – 22.550
22.568 – 22.800
22.816
22.834 – 22.906
22.919
22.939 – 23.341
23.359 – 23.377
23.392 – 23.494
23.507
23.527 – 23.540
23.558 – 23.967
23.980
24.000
24.015 – 24.033
24.050
24.069 – 25.908
25.929 – 26.745
Discussion:
References:
Silt
Clayey Silt
Silt
Clayey Silt
Silt
Silty Sand
Silt
Silty Sand
Silt
Silty Sand
Silt
Silty Sand
Silt
Silty Sand
Silt
Silty Sand
Silt
Silty Sand
Silt
Silty Sand
Silt
Silty Sand
Silt
Silty Sand
0
0
0
0
0
31.808
0
30
0
30
0
30
0
30
0
30
0
30
0
30
0
30
0
30
2.596
3.277
2.633
3.280
2.652
0
2.7982
0
2.563
0
2.550
0
2.476
0
2.507
0
2.501
0
2.530
0
2.530
0
2.516
0
Geotechnical Lab
Cone Penetration Test (CPT) Experiment
Objective
The object of this test is to determine the point resistance and frictional resistance during
penetration of a conical-shaped penetrometer and cylindrical sleeve located behind the conical
point as it is advanced into subsurface soils at a consistent rate.
Report Type
Formal with cover letter
Theoretical Background
CONE PENETRATION TEST
•
•
•
•
•
•
Invasive soil test used to define soil strata type, soil properties, and strength parameters
intended to assist with the design and construction of earthworks, structural
foundations, and the behavior of soils under static and dynamic loads
Highly repeatable
Insensitive to different operators
Best suited for uncemented soils, sands, or clay
Does not retrieve soil sample for laboratory testing or visual inspection
Provides direct measurements of ultimate end bearing and side shear
Excerpt from The Foundation Engineering Handbook – Chapter 2:
The test apparatus consists of a 60° conical tip of known cross-sectional area that is thrust
into the soil at a near constant rate. Behind the cone tip, a friction sleeve of known surface
area is also included that is used to detect the side shear or adhesion between the steel sleeve
and the surrounding soil. The force required to advance the tip through the soil is divided by
the cross-sectional area to determine the tip stress, qc. Similarly, the force required to
advance the friction sleeve is divided by the sleeve surface area to produce the local friction
value, fs. The tip area and sleeve area vary from device to device but the most common areas
are 10 and 150 cm2, respectively.
The tip area (diameter) can influence the magnitude of the resulting qc value similar to
the effects of foundation diameter on capacity. This is due to the increased zone of influence
beneath the tip as the cone diameter increases for various devices. Therefore, in relatively
uniform soils, the tip diameter has little effect. In layered or more heterogeneous strata, a
smaller tip diameter will better register the minute changes in soil type and strength. Larger
diameter cones physically average the effects of thin layers.
Figure 1. Illustration of how a Cone Penetration Test is run.
CONE PENETRATION TEST PROCEDURE:
(Reference: ASTM D5778-12 Standard Test Method for Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone
Penetration Testing of Soils)
1) Power up the penetrometer tip and data acquisition system according to the
manufacturer’s recommendations, typically 15 to 30 minutes prior to use.
2) Obtain an initial baseline reading for the penetrometer in an unloaded condition as close
as possible to ground conditions and compare with previous baseline reading
NOTE: For baseline readings, penetrometer tip should hang freely in air or in water, out
of direct sunlight.
3) Measure the depth at which baseline readings were taken with an accuracy of at least +/100 mm from the ground surface.
4) Determine the cone resistance and friction sleeve resistance, continuously with depth, and
record the data at intervals of depth not exceeding 50 mm.
NOTE: During the progress of the sounding, monitor tip and sleeve forces continuously
for signs of proper operations and to ensure that damage does not occur due to highly
resistant layers or obstructions.
5) At the end of a sounding, extract the penetrometer tip.
6) Obtain final baseline readings with penetrometer tip hanging freely in air or in water and
compare with initial baseline.
7) Record initial and final baselines on all documents related to the sounding.
FORMAL REPORT CHECKLIST:
EVERYTHING MUST BE COMPUTER GENERATED!
o Introduction (15 pts)
• What is CPT?
• How does it work?
• What are some different methods/variations of CPT?
• How does it differ from SPT?
• Advantages/disadvantages of in-situ testing vs. laboratory testing
• Advantages/disadvantages of CPT vs. SPT
o Background (10 pts)
• Provide a brief history of CPT and how it is used today
o Testing and Analysis Method (10 pts)
• Describe the methods and procedures used during a CPT investigation and our
analysis method
o Data & Analysis (35 pts)
• You are given depth, tip stress, and sleeve stress as your raw data
• Calculate friction ratio for all depths
• Provide plots for:
1) Tip Stress vs. Depth
2) Sleeve Stress vs. Depth
3) Friction Ratio vs. Depth
• Use Excel to determine soil classifications for the entire subsurface (every point
on the data set) according to the CPT-Classification Diagram. Also determine
equivalent SPT N-values according to the diagram.
• Provide plots for:
1) Equivalent SPT N-Values vs. Depth
2) Soil Type vs. Depth
• After determining SPT N-values, use Excel to determine friction angle and
cohesion for the entire data set. Use the correlations from Table 2.3 (from
PowerPoint).
o Discussion (20 pts)
• Comment on the soil profile. What kinds of soil layers are present? Where (depth)
and how big are they?
• Comment on the field data correlations. Which laboratory experiments would
need to be performed to obtain similar data? Which is more accurate?
• As an engineer, it is important to be aware of the benefits and shortcomings of insitu and laboratory testing as they pertain each individual application or project.
There is no ‘one size fits all’ in geotechnical investigation. Discuss the factors of
a project (i.e. size, type, importance, location, etc.) and how they would influence
your choice of testing. When would one be preferred over the other? When should
a combination be used?
o References (10 pts)
• Cite your sources! Use a consistent format (e.g. MLA, APA, etc.)
I
d ci
C ne Pene a i n Te ing (CPT) i an in- i e ing me h d ed
de e mine ge echnical
enginee ing
e ie f il and eci el de c ibing il la e and i i c en l ne f he
m
idel
ed me h d . The CPT begin n he g nd
face and de e mine he i
e i ance d ing ene a i n. The mechanic f he e begin i h he c ne i ene a ing he
il a a c n an a e f 20 mm/ . Reading a e c n in
l b ained and
all ec ded
e e 20 mm and a he c ne ene a e h gh he il, he c ne ha a lee e l ad cell ha
mea e lee e f ic i n and a i l ad cell ha mea e he i
e (G da-Ge ). All he da a
and mea emen a e ec ded n he c m e ha i c nnec ed
he ig.
C ne Pene a i n Te ing ha diffe en me h d and a ia i n ba ed n he CPT ig. Rig can
a in i e f m
able i e
la ge ck-m n ed ne and he la ge ck-m n ed ig a
ed
c nd c he e e imen f hi lab. Each ig ha i
n
e and man fac
c n ib e
he i e ch en
ca
he e . The m
im
an fac
i he
face
c ndi i n a he
e f c ndi i n in a a ic la l ca i n ill de e mine he i e f he ig. CPT
i n
nl effec i e f delinea ing
il
a ig a h b i al
ed
de e mine he
li efac i n- igge ing e i ance f each il la e . Thi hel
de e mine if la e a e
edic ed li ef f diffe en le el f ea h ake haking (Ve ekCPT).
M e e , he S anda d Pene a i n Te (SPT) i an al e na i e me h d f de e mining he
mechanical
e ie f il. SPT diffe
CPT ch ha , he
l ed f
he SPT i
hamme ed in he il and n
hed like ha f he CPT ig. Addi i nall , acc ding Le i ,
SPT e man al da a c llec i n, hil CPT e elec nic da a c llec i n.
In- i e and lab e
he il be e ed hil
One ad an age f in- i
Di bance ca ed b
ain . In c m a i n
l me a e e ed. Al
e ing i ha he beha i
a e diffe en ch ha in- i e a e d ne a he e i ing l ca i n f
f a lab e , a il am le i aken and e ed a a f m he
ce.
e ing i ha i i d ne i h
an di bance ca ed b am ling.
am ling can
en iall al e he a icle a angemen and e e
lab e ing, in- i e ing gene a e m e ac ical e l a la ge
, in- i e a e fa and c
effec i e. One di ad an age f in- i
and d ainage c ndi i n f he il being e ed ill n be kn n.
One big ad an age he CPT a an in- i e i ha
d n’ ha e
ai f
am le e l
ge back f m a lab. Thi i e beneficial hen
a e e ed f ime. The di ad an age
f hi e me h d
ld be ha a di bance ca ed ill lead
he am le ha ing a b nda
la e be een
il
e and bec me mi ed, making he il m e diffic l
iden if .
Ge echnical B ing and CPT
ide g ea
i n f
b aining ef l inf ma i n, he ef e
he e a e m e benefi
ing CPT e d illing. CPT i n
nl a c -effec i e
i nb i
1
al
ide immedia e da a e ie . On he he hand, SPT e a e im le
c nd c b i a
ha h me h d, ca ing am le
be di bed. The e l
b ained a e
all a iable and
nce ain.
Bac g
d
The CPT e b i elf ha
ha da e back
he 1930 , Rec d indica e n a ad a in
cl e
imi
G da in he Ne he land , A ci il e an b he name f Pie e Ba en en
e f m he fi
e n ec d b
hing a 10 cm3 c ne man all , b nl
ing hi
nb d
eigh
d
. Thi me h d in en ed a a
acc a el mea e he il e i ance n a
c nical i . B
ing hi CPT e he c ld mea e he h d a lic e
e ga ge. H e e ,
he CPT e
da i n l nge d ne man all b i digi all ec ded.
Te i g Me h d
The C ne Pene a i n Te
a d ne a he Uni e i
f S h Fl ida Ge a k. Da a f m
he CPT in e iga i n a ga he ed ing he C llege f Enginee ing CPT e ing ig. A he
c ne ad anced h gh he il, i
e and lee e e
e e ela ed an e cel file h gh a
MegaDa da a ac i i i n
em. The e ended hen he f ce f he il
hing again he
c ne a en gh
e c me he eigh f he
ck
hich he CPT ig a a ached.
Al h gh hand a ge
a n
ed f hi e e imen , i i a man al
ced e and a
ach
b ain il am le. Hand a ge me h d diffe f m he CPT
ced e ince he hand a ge
a e filled i h il d ing he d illing
ce and m be e i dicall lif ed
he
face and
em ied.
Fig e 1: CPT A
a a
( ef ) & Pe e a i g C
e ( igh )
2
Tip Stress vs. Depth
Sleeve Stress vs. Depth
Tip Stress (ksf)
50
100
150
200
250
Tip Stress (ksf)
300
350
400
0
6600
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
Depth (ft)
Depth (ft)
0
6800
6900
7000
7100
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
17
17
18
18
19
19
20
20
21
21
22
22
23
23
24
24
Figure 1 – Tip Stress v Depth
6700
Figure 2- Sleeve Stress v Depth
3
Friction Ratio vs. Depth
Equivalent SPT-N vs. Depth
Friction Ratio (%)
1
2
3
4
SPT-N
5
6
7
0
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
Depth (ft)
Depth (ft)
0
12
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
17
17
18
18
19
19
20
20
21
21
22
22
23
23
24
24
Figure 3 – Friction Ratio v Depth
10
Figure 4 – SPT – N v Depth
4
Soil Profile
Depth (ft)
0.000
0.683
0.701
0.755
0.768
0.825
0.843
Legend
Sandy Silt
Silty Sand
Very Stiff
Fine Grained
8.717
8.737
9.176
9.190
10.541
10.559
11.535
11.553
18.027
18.042
18.511
18.526
21.733
21.749
21.785
21.800
21.928
Figure 5 – Soil Profile
5
Tab e 1. Sh
i g he
De h (f )
i e e i g Sa d T
S i T
e,S i de c i i
e
a d A e age hi (deg)
S i De c i i
0-0.22
Sand
Sil
0.24
Cla
Sand Sil
0.00
0.25-0.68
Sand
Sil
Sand
29.76
0.69-0.75
Sand
S iff Fine G ained
34.0
0.76-0.83
Sand
Sand Sil
0.00
0.84-3.00
Sand
Sil
Sand
31.2
3.02-6.87
Sand
Sil
Sand
30.7
6.88-6.90
Cla
Sand Sil
0.00
6.92-6.96
Sand
Sil
Sand
32.0
6.97

Cla
Sand Sil
0.0
6.99
Sand
Sil
Sand
32.0
7.00
Cla
Sand Sil
0.00
7.02-8.70
Sand
Sil
Sand
32.0
8.74-9.17
Cla
Sand Sil
0.00
9.18-10.54
Sand
Sil
Sand
31.6
10.55-11.54
Cla
Sand Sil
0.00
11.55-13.32
Cla
Sil
Sand
30.8
13.34-13.35
Cla
Sand Sil
0.00
13.37-17.25
Sand
Sil
Sand
30.5
17.26-17.33
Cla
Sand Sil
0.00
17.40-18.02
Sand
Sil
31.7
Ve
Sand
A e age
Sand
(deg)
29.6
6
18.03-18.48
Cla
Sand Sil
0.00
18.498
Sand
Sil
Sand
32.0
18.511
Cla
Sand Sil
0.00
18.52-21.73
Sand
Sil
Sand
31.2
21.74-21.78
Cla
Sand Sil
0.00
21.8-21.928
Sand
Tab e 2. Sh
i g he ab a
De h (f )
1.00-3.00
C
c
S i T
Sand
e i g
Ve
i de c i i
e
a d
S iff Fine G ained
i
34.0
e a de h 1-3f
S i De c i i
P
l G aded Sand i h Cla
i
Ba ed n he il am le aken f m USF S Ge Tech Pa k, i a c ncl ded ha
il aken
m l c n i ed f and. Sil
and d mina e he il
file i h me cca i nal malle
la e
f and il . The la ge la e f il and e ched f m .84
8.7 and an he la ge
la e a be een 11.5
18 . La e
f and il ended be ab
1 1.5 hick be een
he la e
f il and. Ve
iff fine g ained il e e enc n e ed a he end f e ab
22
bel
g nd le el hich he c ne nl ene a ed ab
1.5 . The ef e, hen l king a he
al de h , he il a cla ified a and i h mini c le la e f il /cla . Thi inf ma i n i
e en ed g a hicall in he il
file ab e (Fig e 5).
The e l f he n i e e ing da a and he S il Cla ifica i n lab a
e e imen da a a
de h 1-3 f
ee e
imila and b h cla ified he maj i
f
il a Sand. H e e , he
n i e e ing da a had a maj i
il de c i i n f Sil Sand hile he lab a
e ing da a
had a il de c i i n f P l G aded Sand . A f he f ic i n angle, he c m a i n be een
he n i e da a and Di ec Shea lab a
e e imen da a can n be d ne ince he il am le
e ed f Di ec Shea e e imen a n he ame il am le ha a c llec ed f m he CPT
i e.
I can be c ncl ded ha he il c n i ed m l f and ince b h he CPT da a and lab a
e ed am le e l ed in a il cla ifica i n f Sand. The f ic i n angle
ld be ba ed nl
n
7
he CPT da a ince he Di ec Shea lab a
e e imen am le ed a diffe en . The
f ic i n angle f he am le e l ed in an a e age f ic i n angle f 0 f Cla and an a e age
f ic i n angle ange f 29.6 – 34 f Sand a h n n able 1 ab e.
On an i e, an enginee h ld al a kn
ha he a e
king i h
n bef e
c mmi ing
an i e bef e ge ing a ed. Kn ing he il am le a e de imen al in
nde anding he c e f he
jec , in de
ca ef ll lan f f
e
jec mi ha .
The e i a ignifican am n f inf ma i n a ailable f m diffe en me h d ha can be
e f med i
d illing, a i in b ing he il am le l ca i n . E e i e ill a and
e e
il b e i e l ca i n de h can change. Hence, diffe en il e ing me h d ma a f
each i e e l ca i n ba ed n
g a h , m i e c n en , and e en age f he i e.
8
Refe e ce
A lied Re ea ch A cia e , I. (2018). ?The Ad a age a d Di ad a age f Ge ech ical
B i g; Wh CPT Ma be Y
Be e O i ?. [ nline] Ve ekc .c m. A ailable a :
h ://
. e ekc .c m/bl g/ad an age -di ad an age -ge echincal-b ing#.W7 V mhKhP
Y [Acce ed 7 Oc . 2018].
G da-Ge . Hi
f C ne Pene a i n Te ing (CPT). ?Hi
f C e Pe e a i Te i g
(CPT) – G da Ge -E i me BV?,
.g da-ge .c m/ d c /c -e i men /backg nd-inf ma i n/hi
– f-c ne- ene a i
n- e ing-c
Hi
f C ne Pene a i n Te ing (CPT). ?Hi
G da Ge -E i me BV,?
.g da-ge .c m/ d c /c -e i men /backg
n- e ing-c .
fC
e Pe e a i
nd-inf ma i n/hi
Te i g (CPT) – f-c ne- ene a i
R hen a, K mihana. W
? ha I a C e Pe e a i Te (CPT)? E
? QC Ea h ake
C mmi i n,
.e c.g .n / i e / blic_file /image /Wha %20i %20a%20c ne%20 ene a i n%20 e . d
f
Ve ekCPT. Wh A e The e S Man Kind f CPT Rig ? In-Si S il Te ing 101: The
Diffe en T e f Te , A lied Re ea ch A cia e , Inc., 25 Feb. 2014,
. e ekc .c m/bl g/c – ig – a ia i n
9
FORMAL REPORT CHECKLIST:
EVERYTHING MUST BE COMPUTER GENERATED!
o Introduction (15 pts)
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is CPT?
How does it work?
What are some different methods/variations of CPT?
How does it differ from SPT?
Advantages/disadvantages of in-situ testing vs. laboratory testing
Advantages/disadvantages of CPT vs. SPT
o Background (10 pts)
• Provide a brief history of CPT and how it is used today
o Testing and Analysis Method (10 pts)
• Describe the methods and procedures used during a CPT investigation and our analysis
method
o Data & Analysis (35 pts)
•
•
•
You are given depth, tip stress, and sleeve stress as your raw data
Calculate friction ratio for all depths
Provide plots for: 1) Tip Stress vs. Depth
2) Sleeve Stress vs. Depth
3) Friction Ratio vs. Depth
•
Use Excel to determine soil classifications for the entire subsurface (every point
on the data set) according to the CPT-Classification Diagram. Also determine
equivalent SPT N-values according to the diagram.
•
Provide plots for: 1) Equivalent SPT N-Values vs. Depth
2) Soil Type vs. Depth
•
After determining SPT N-values, use Excel to determine friction angle and
cohesion for the entire data set. Use the correlations from Table 2.3 (from
PowerPoint).
o Discussion (20 pts)
•
•
•
Comment on the soil profile. What kinds of soil layers are present? Where (depth) and
how big are they?
Comment on the field data correlations. Which laboratory experiments would need to be
performed to obtain similar data? Which is more accurate?
As an engineer, it is important to be aware of the benefits and shortcomings of in- situ
and laboratory testing as they pertain each individual application or project. There is no
‘one size fits all’ in geotechnical investigation. Discuss the factors of a project (i.e. size,
type, importance, location, etc.) and how they would influence your choice of testing.
When would one be preferred over the other? When should a combination be used?
o References (10 pts)
• Cite your sources! Use a consistent format (e.g. MLA, APA, etc.)

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