Assessing Muscoskeletal Pain & Different Diagnosis Case Studiy Help Discussion: Assessing Muscoskeletal Pain
The body is constantly sending signals about its health. One of the most easily recognized signals is pain. Musculoskeletal conditions comprise one of the leading causes of severe long-term pain in patients. The musculoskeletal system is an elaborate system of interconnected levers that provide the body with support and mobility. Because of the interconnectedness of the musculoskeletal system, identifying the causes of pain can be challenging. Accurately interpreting the cause of musculoskeletal pain requires an assessment process informed by patient history and physical exams.
In this Discussion, you will consider case studies that describe abnormal findings in patients seen in a clinical setting.
Note: By Day 1 of this week, your Instructor will have assigned you to one of the following specific case studies for this Discussion. Also, your Discussion post should be in the Episodic/Focused SOAP Note format, rather than the traditional narrative style Discussion posting format. Refer to Chapter 2 of the Sullivan text and the Episodic/Focused SOAP Template in the Week 5 Learning Resources for guidance. Remember that all Episodic/Focused SOAP notes have specific data included in every patient case.
Case 1: Back Pain
A 42-year-old male reports pain in his lower back for the past month. The pain sometimes radiates to his left leg. In determining the cause of the back pain, based on your knowledge of anatomy, what nerve roots might be involved? How would you test for each of them? What other symptoms need to be explored? What are your differential diagnoses for acute low back pain? Consider the possible origins using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines as a framework. What physical examination will you perform? What special maneuvers will you perform?
Case 2: Ankle Pain
A 46-year-old female reports pain in both of her ankles, but she is more concerned about her right ankle. She was playing soccer over the weekend and heard a “pop.” She is able to bear weight, but it is uncomfortable. In determining the cause of the ankle pain, based on your knowledge of anatomy, what foot structures are likely involved? What other symptoms need to be explored? What are your differential diagnoses for ankle pain? What physical examination will you perform? What special maneuvers will you perform? Should you apply the Ottowa ankle rules to determine if you need additional testing?
Case 3: Knee Pain
A 15-year-old male reports dull pain in both knees. Sometimes one or both knees click, and the patient describes a catching sensation under the patella. In determining the causes of the knee pain, what additional history do you need? What categories can you use to differentiate knee pain? What are your specific differential diagnoses for knee pain? What physical examination will you perform? What anatomic structures are you assessing as part of the physical examination? What special maneuvers will you perform?
With regard to the case study you were assigned:
Review this week’s Learning Resources, and consider the insights they provide about the case study.
Consider what history would be necessary to collect from the patient in the case study you were assigned.
Consider what physical exams and diagnostic tests would be appropriate to gather more information about the patient’s condition. How would the results be used to make a diagnosis?
Identify at least five possible conditions that may be considered in a differential diagnosis for the patient.
Note: Before you submit your initial post, replace the subject line (“Discussion – Week 8”) with “Review of Case Study ___.” Fill in the blank with the number of the case study you were assigned.
By Day 3
Post an episodic/focused note about the patient in the case study to which you were assigned using the episodic/focused note template provided in week 5 resources. Provide evidence from the literature to support diagnostic tests that would be appropriate for each case. List five different possible conditions for the patient’s differential diagnosis and justify why you selected each. Example
Focused SOAP Note for a patient with chest pain
CC: Chest pain
HPI: The patient is a 65-year-old AA male who developed sudden onset of chest pain, which
began early this morning. The pain is described as crushing and is rated nine out of 10 in
terms of intensity. The pain is located in the middle of the chest and is accompanied by shortness
of breath. The patient reports feeling nauseous. The patient tried an antacid with minimal relief
of his symptoms.
PMH: Positive history of GERD and hypertension is controlled
FH: Mother died at 78 of breast cancer; Father at 75 of CVA. No history of premature
cardiovascular disease in first degree relatives.
SH : Negative for tobacco abuse, currently or previously; consumes moderate alcohol; married
for 39 years
General–Negative for fevers, chills, fatigue
Cardiovascular–Negative for orthopnea, PND, positive for intermittent lower extremity edema
Gastrointestinal–Positive for nausea without vomiting; negative for diarrhea, abdominal pain
Pulmonary–Positive for intermittent dyspnea on exertion, negative for cough or hemoptysis
VS: BP 186/102; P 94; R 22; T 97.8; 02 96% Wt 235lbs; Ht 70
General–Pt appears diaphoretic and anxious
Cardiovascular–PMI is in the 5th inter-costal space at the mid clavicular line. A grade 2/6
systolic decrescendo murmur is heard best at the
second right inter-costal space which radiates to the neck.
A third heard sound is heard at the apex. No fourth heart sound or rub are heard. No cyanosis,
clubbing, noted, positive for bilateral 2+ LE edema is noted.
Gastrointestinal–The abdomen is symmetrical without distention; bowel
sounds are normal in quality and intensity in all areas; a
bruit is heard in the right para-umbilical area. No masses or
splenomegaly are noted. Positive for mid-epigastric tenderness with deep palpation.
Pulmonary– Lungs are clear to auscultation and percussion bilaterally
Diagnostic results: EKG, CXR, CK-MB (support with evidenced and guidelines)
1) Myocardial Infarction (provide supportive documentation with evidence based guidelines).
2) Angina (provide supportive documentation with evidence based guidelines).
3) Costochondritis (provide supportive documentation with evidence based guidelines).
Primary Diagnosis/Presumptive Diagnosis: Myocardial Infarction
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
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P. This section is not required for the assignments in this course (NURS 6512) but will be
required for future courses.
© 2014 Laureate Education, Inc.
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