AMH2020 UFL World War I Abroad And At Home In America Discussion Answer must be in 5 paragraph essay form. (Opening paragraph, 3 supporting, 1 closing)You

AMH2020 UFL World War I Abroad And At Home In America Discussion Answer must be in 5 paragraph essay form. (Opening paragraph, 3 supporting, 1 closing)You must only use lecture notes or library books. Outside sources must be approved. -5 points to argument if outside sources are used without approval.Must use proper format. -5 pts for improper foot notes. -5 for not using essay form. Mechanics is worth a total of 10 points.Clarity worth 10 points. Spelling won’t be graded – clarity will. No run on sentences. You have resources available to you in this area. World War I Abroad and At Home
• 1. Foreign Policy under Roosevelt, Taft, and
• 2. The United States in World War I
• 3. Wilson and the Fourteen Points
• 4. The War at Home
Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” Policy
The Roosevelt Corollary
• Monroe Doctrine (1823)
states that U.S. will not
accept European
interference in Western
• TR’s “Corollary” states
that U.S. had right to
intervene in domestic
affairs of Latin American
countries in order to
preserve order
Panama Canal
• Connects Atlantic to Pacific
• Treaty signed 1901
• U.S. constructs canal and
exercises “power and
authority” over it
• Control turned over to
Panama in 1999
Foreign Policy under Taft
• Dollar Diplomacy
– Encourages private bankers to invest in Latin
America, connecting these nations economically
to the United States
• Nicaragua
– Government supported by U.S. fruit and mining
companies is threatened, Taft sends troops.
Marines stay in Nicaragua for 25 years.
Wilsonian Diplomacy
• Wilson prefers negotiation and diplomacy, but often
employs force
• Mexico
– 1911 – Civil War leads to warring factions
– Seeking stability, U.S. sends Navy to Veracruz.
Confrontation kills 19 American and 126 Mexicans
– Poncho Villa attacks a small town in New Mexico. Wilson
sends troops into Mexico in search of Villa. Operation is a
failure, damages relations between countries
• Haiti
– 1915 – After assassination of President of Haiti, Wilson
sends Marines. They take over some functions of
government. Marines stay for 3o years.
Wilson and World War I
• 1914 – Assassination of
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
leads to total war in
– Central Powers: Germany,
Austria-Hungary, Ottoman
– Allies: Great Britain,
France, Russia (and Italy
after 1915)
• U.S. remains neutral for
first three years of war
World War I Abroad and At Home
• 1. Foreign Policy under Roosevelt, Taft, and
• 2. The United States in World War I
• 3. Wilson and the Fourteen Points
• 4. The War at Home
WWI – The Why and How
• Unification and revolutions occur throughout
Europe beginning in 1848.
• Germany unifies under Prussian Leadership.
• King Wilhelm’s Prime Minster Otto von
Bismarck leads campaign to unite German
• Starts war with French Empire under
Napoleon III – Germans win, take French land
and crown Wilhelm Kaiser Wilhelm I of
Germany in the Palace of Versailles
• Causes lasting hostility between France and
• Wilhelm’s son Friedrich III marries Queen
Victoria of England’s daughter.
• Short reign – March – June 1888
• His son Wilhelm II highly competitive with
his uncle Edward VII of England.
WWI – The Why and How II
• Nations for secret alliances for mutual
• France seeks to counterbalance the
power of Germany by forming an
alliance with the Empire of Russia
• Germany forms alliances with Italy and
Austria-Hungary to protect themselves
from France and Russia.
• Italy promises to join Austria-Hungary’s defense if A-H is attacked, but it A-H is an attacker, they
will remain neutral. Also signs a treaty with France.
• Russia sees itself as guardian of the Slavic people. While it has no formal alliance with Serbia or
Bulgaria, it seeks to guard their interests.
• Britain has treaty with France and Belgium.
WWI – The Why and How II
• Arms Race
WWI – The Spark
• Archduke Franz Ferdinand,
heir to the Austro-Hungarian
thrown, is assassinated in
Sarajevo by a Serbian
• Sarajevo was part of AustriaHungary at the time.
• Austria-Hungary demanded
the extradition of the
assassin. Serbia refused.
WWI – The Dominoes Fall
• The following occurs between June 28 – August 6, 1914
• Russian Empire declares war on Austria-Hungary for
invading Serbia. Germany declares war on Russia for
declaring war on A-H. France declares war on Germany
(and A-H) for declaring war on Russia.
• Germany invades France, marching through Belgium on the
way. Britain declares war on Germany for invading Belgium.
• Not one nation has a direct interest in the assassination of
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, yet all Europe is now on fire.
The War Until May 6, 1915
• War begins as one of maneuver
• Settles into trench warfare
• Massive casualties
• Enlistment of male population of
towns causes extinction of fighting
age male population of some
• 1st Battle of the Marne – Sept 612, 1914. Casualties: Germany
250,000 (67,700 dead). Allies
263,000 (81,700 dead).
The Sinking of the Lusitania
• U.S. is neutral, but trades
much more extensively
with allies
• Germans sink the
Lusitania, May 15, 1915.
Luxury liner carrying
– 1200 people (incl. 128
Americans) are killed
• Wilson wins re-election in
1916. “He kept us out of
Heightening Tensions with Germany
• Germany adopts
unrestricted submarine
• Zimmermann Telegram –
Germans offer U.S. land to
Mexico in exchange for
military support if U.S.
enters the war (right)
• April 2, 1917 – Wilson’s war
message. The world must
be made “Safe for
U.S. Prepares for War
• Selective Service Act
(1917) creates draft.
Nearly 3 million men
drafted; 2 million
• Training and mobilization
begins. US troops make
little impact in Europe
until 1918
• U.S. Navy and monetary
aid contribute to war
effort throughout 1917
“Over There”
• U.S. troops arrive in Europe in May
• Late 1917 – Russian Revolution.
Communist regime negotiates
separate peace with Central Powers.
• May-Sept. 1918 – General Pershing
leads Allied counteroffensive
• November 11, 1918 – armistice
• 100,000 U.S. troops killed (1% of
total war dead)
General John J. Pershing
World War I Abroad and At Home
• 1. Foreign Policy under Roosevelt, Taft, and
• 2. The United States in World War I
• 3. Wilson and the Fourteen Points
• 4. The War at Home
The Fourteen Points
• Wilson’s plan for postwar peace
– End to secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free
trade, reduction of war weaponry, recognition of
rights of colonized people
– League of Nations to ensure peace
• Wilson presents plan to Allies during final year
of war. Hopes it will serve as basis of postwar
Paris Peace Conference
• January – June 1919
• Wilson’s counterparts: George
Clemenceau (France) and
David Lloyd George (Great
Britain) (right)
• Allies seek more punitive
settlement that Wilson
• Germany is singled out as sole
instigator of war; it loses
territory and pays $33 billion
• Wilson gets League of Nations
included in Treaty
Domestic opposition to League of
• Led by Henry Cabot Lodge
(Sen. MA), Congressional
Republicans do not want
limits on American action
• Write several amendments
to treaty, or “reservations”
• Wilson refuses to consider
passing treaty with
• Treaty does not pass, U.S.
does not join League of
World War I Abroad and At Home
• 1. Foreign Policy under Roosevelt, Taft, and
• 2. The United States in World War I
• 3. Wilson and the Fourteen Points
• 4. The War At Home
War Time Industry
Mobilizes private enterprise to meet public
Rooted in Progressive faith in efficiency and
Food Administration
– Institutes voluntary conservation measures (i.e.
“Meatless Mondays”) in order to save food for
soldiers. Families plant gardens and make use of
National War Labor Board
– Wartime alliance between business, labor, and
government. In exchange for labor’s pledge not
to strike, NWLB supports an 8-hour workday
(time-and-a-half for overtime), the right to
collective bargain, and equal pay for women
Fuel Administration
– Encourages fuel holidays
– Invents Daylight Savings Time – adds an extra
(fuel-less) hour at the end of the workday
Committee on Public
Information/Creel Committee
• Led by journalist George
• Generates war
• “Four minute men”
• Posters
• Films
18th and 19th Amendments
• Prohibitionists use wartime patriotic fervor to push
anti-alcohol legislation. Urge nation to save grain for
food rather than liquor.
• Congress passes 18th Amendment in December 1917.
States ratify shortly after. Prohibition goes into effect
January 1, 1920.
• Wilson comes out in support of women’s suffrage.
Women deserve the vote due to their wartime
• Congress passes 19th Amendment in June 1919.
Ratified August 1920.
The Government and 100% Americanism
• Espionage Act (1917) – prohibits antiwar activities,
including interfering with draft. Bans mailing of
certain publications
• Sedition Act (1918) – punishes individuals who
express disloyal sentiments
• 2000 prosecutions under these acts. Few deal with
actual cases of espionage or sabotage
• Socialist Eugene V. Debs sentenced to 10 years in
prison for criticizing the draft
American Protective League (APL)
• Founded 1917
• Vigilante organization,
works with U.S. Justice
• Surveillance of
immigrants, radicals, and
suspected German
• “Slacker Raids” – men on
street forced to produce
draft registration cards
The Great Migration
• During World War I, 400,000 African
Americans leave rural South for
North finding jobs in factories
• Detroit
– 1910: 5,000
– 1920: 40,000
• Cleveland
– 1910: 9,000
– 1920: 24,000
• Chicago
– 1910: 44,000
– 1920: 109,000
• New York
– 1910: 91,000
– 1920: 152,000
Wartime Jobs
• Black men gain foothold in
industrial jobs – steel mills,
packinghouses, shipbuilding,
heavy industry
• Black women work as
domestics and maids, but
also in factories and industry
• Average daily wage is twice
that available in the South
Effects of the Great Migration
• African Americans face discrimination and
segregation in the North. After war, many lose
high-paying factory jobs
• Before Great Migration, vast majority of
nation’s black population is in the South. After
WWI, center of black life is pulled northward
• New York and Chicago become centers of black
intellectual, social, and cultural life
• Nationalizes racial tensions that had previously
been localized in the South

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