Airplane Crush THIRA – Kindly, do THIRA on the crashing of the turboprop plane in Clarence Center, New York. – Follow the 4-step process in the FEMA Guidel

Airplane Crush THIRA – Kindly, do THIRA on the crashing of the turboprop plane in Clarence Center, New York. – Follow the 4-step process in the FEMA Guideline (attached).- I have attached example of paper.- APA Style Threat and Hazard Identification
and Risk Assessment Guide
Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 201
Second Edition
August 2013
CPG 201: Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide—Second Edition
Table of Contents
Forward ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
THIRA Process………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
Relationship to Other Risk Assessments……………………………………………………………………..2
Core Capabilities ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….2
National Preparedness System……………………………………………………………………………………3
Whole Community Involvement…………………………………………………………………………………4
Updating Previous THIRAs ……………………………………………………………………………………….5
Step 1: Identify the Threats and Hazards of Concern ………………………………………… 5
Types of Threats and Hazards ……………………………………………………………………………………5
Sources of Threat and Hazard Information ………………………………………………………………..6
Factors for Selecting Threats and Hazards …………………………………………………………………7
Step 1 Output…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8
Step 2: Give the Threats and Hazards Context ………………………………………………….. 9
Context Description: Factors to Consider …………………………………………………………………..9
Examples of Context Descriptions …………………………………………………………………………….10
Step 2 Output…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10
Step 3: Establish Capability Targets ………………………………………………………………. 10
Impacts and Desired Outcomes ………………………………………………………………………………..11
Developing Capability Targets …………………………………………………………………………………12
Example Capability Target ………………………………………………………………………………………14
Step 3 Output…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14
Step 4: Apply the Results ………………………………………………………………………………. 14
Capability Estimation ………………………………………………………………………………………………15
Resource Typing………………………………………………………………………………………………………16
Example of a Completed THIRA ……………………………………………………………………………..18
i
CPG 201: Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide—Second Edition
Applying the THIRA Results to Resource Allocation Decisions and Preparedness
Activities………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….18
Step 4 Output…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..20
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
Appendix A: THIRA Template ………………………………………………………………………. A-1
Appendix B: Glossary ………………………………………………………………………………….. B-1
ii
CPG 201: Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide—Second Edition
Forward
Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 201, Second Edition provides communities
additional guidance for conducting a Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment
(THIRA). The First Edition of this Guide (April 2012) presented the basic steps of the THIRA
process. Specifically, the First Edition described a standard process for identifying communityspecific threats and hazards and setting capability targets for each core capability identified in the
National Preparedness Goal as required in Presidential Policy Directive (PPD) 8: National
Preparedness. 1
This Second Edition expands the THIRA process to include estimation of resources needed to
meet the capability targets. The Second Edition also reflects other changes to the THIRA process
based on stakeholder feedback, such as streamlining the number of steps to conduct a THIRA
and providing additional examples. Where appropriate, this Guide highlights key changes from
the First Edition of CPG 201. This Second Edition supersedes the First Edition of CPG 201.
Overview
Every community should understand the risks it faces. By understanding its risks, a community
can make smart decisions about how to manage risk, including developing needed capabilities.
Risk is the potential for an unwanted outcome resulting from an incident, event, or occurrence, as
determined by its likelihood and the associated consequences. 2 By considering changes to these
elements, a community can understand how to best manage and plan for its greatest risks across
the full range of the threats and hazards it faces. The THIRA process helps communities identify
capability targets and resource requirements necessary to address anticipated and unanticipated
risks.
T H I R A P ro c e s s
This Guide describes a four-step process for developing a THIRA:
1. Identify the Threats and Hazards of Concern. Based on a combination of experience,
forecasting, subject matter expertise, and other available resources, identify a list of the
threats and hazards of primary concern to the community.
2. Give the Threats and Hazards Context. Describe the threats and hazards of concern,
showing how they may affect the community.
3. Establish Capability Targets. Assess each threat and hazard in context to develop a specific
capability target for each core capability identified in the National Preparedness Goal. The
capability target defines success for the capability.
4. Apply the Results. For each core capability, estimate the resources required to achieve the
capability targets through the use of community assets and mutual aid, while also considering
preparedness activities, including mitigation opportunities.
1
For additional information on the National Preparedness Goal please visit http://www.fema.gov/nationalpreparedness.
2
DHS Risk Lexicon, June 2013.
1
CPG 201: Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide—Second Edition
The THIRA process is flexible and scalable and will work for communities of all sizes.
Communities can adapt these four steps, illustrated in Figure 1, to meet their specific needs and
resources.
Figure 1: The THIRA Process
R el at i o n sh i p t o O t h e r Ri s k As s es sm en t s
The THIRA process standardizes the risk analysis process that emergency managers and
homeland security professionals use every day through the normal course of their work. The
THIRA process builds on existing local, state, tribal, territorial Hazard Identification and Risk
Assessments (HIRAs) by:
Broadening the threats and hazards considered to include human-caused threats and
technological hazards
Incorporating the whole community into the planning process, including individuals;
families; businesses; faith-based and community organizations; nonprofit groups; schools
and academia; media outlets; and all levels of government, including local, state, tribal,
territorial, and Federal partners
Providing increased flexibility to account for community-specific factors.
C o r e Cap ab i l i t i e s
Communities use the core capabilities described in the National Preparedness Goal to organize
their capability targets in the THIRA process (see Table 1). The core capabilities provide a
common language for preparedness across the whole community. The core capabilities are
relevant to all five preparedness mission areas:
Prevention: Prevent, avoid, or stop an imminent, threatened, or actual act of terrorism.
Protection: Protect our citizens, residents, visitors, and assets against the greatest threats and
hazards in a manner that allows our interests, aspirations, and way of life to thrive.
Mitigation: Reduce the loss of life and property by lessening the impact of future disasters.
Response: Respond quickly to save lives; protect property and the environment; and meet
basic human needs in the aftermath of a catastrophic incident.
2
CPG 201: Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide—Second Edition
Recovery: Recover through a focus on the timely restoration, strengthening, and
revitalization of infrastructure, housing, and a sustainable economy, as well as the health,
social, cultural, historic, and environmental fabric of communities affected by a catastrophic
incident.
Table 1: Core Capabilities by Mission Area 3
Prevention
Protection
Mitigation
Response
Recovery
Planning
Public Information and Warning
Operational Coordination
Forensics and
Attribution
Intelligence and
Information
Sharing
Interdiction and
Disruption
Screening, Search,
and Detection
Access Control
and Identity
Verification
Cybersecurity
Intelligence and
Information
Sharing
Interdiction and
Disruption
Physical
Protective
Measures
Risk Management
for Protection
Programs and
Activities
Screening,
Search, and
Detection
Supply Chain
Integrity and
Security
Community
Resilience
Long-term
Vulnerability
Reduction
Risk and Disaster
Resilience
Assessment
Threats and
Hazard
Identification
Critical Transportation
Environmental
Response/
Health and Safety
Fatality Management
Services
Infrastructure
Systems
Mass Care Services
Mass Search and
Rescue Operations
On-scene Security
and Protection
Operational
Communications
Public and Private
Services and
Resources
Public Health and
Medical Services
Situational
Assessment
Economic
Recovery
Health and Social
Services
Housing
Infrastructure
Systems
Natural and
Cultural Resources
N a t i o n al P rep a red n es s S y st em
The National Preparedness System is the instrument the Nation employs to build, sustain, and
deliver the core capabilities in order to achieve the goal of a secure and resilient Nation. Figure 2
illustrates the six components of the National Preparedness System. 4
3
Planning, Public Information and Warning, and Operational Coordination are core capabilities common to all
mission areas.
4
For additional information on the National Preparedness System please visit http://www.fema.gov/nationalpreparedness.
3
CPG 201: Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide—Second Edition
Figure 2: Components of the National Preparedness System
The THIRA process supports the first two components of the National Preparedness System:
1. Identifying and Assessing Risk
2. Estimating Capability Requirements.
The THIRA process helps communities answer the following questions:
What does the community need to prepare for?
What resources are required in order to be prepared?
What actions (e.g., mitigation activities) could be employed to lessen or eliminate the threat
or hazard?
What impacts need to be incorporated into the community’s recovery preparedness planning?
The results of the THIRA process form the foundation for subsequent National Preparedness
System activities.
W h o l e C o m m u n i t y I n vo l v e m e n t
Developing an effective THIRA requires active involvement from the whole community.
Recognizing that preparedness is a shared responsibility, the National Preparedness System calls
for the involvement of everyone—not just government agencies—in preparedness efforts. When
developing and updating THIRAs, jurisdictions should ensure their assessment and planning
effort includes representatives and perspectives of the whole community. An informed public is
the best advocate for building and sustaining required capabilities and creating a secure and
resilient community.
Experience from the first year of THIRA implementation shows the importance of whole
community involvement. THIRAs developed with whole community involvement are more
comprehensive and measurable.
4
CPG 201: Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide—Second Edition
U p d a t i n g P re vi o u s T HI R A s
When reviewing, revising, or updating an existing THIRA, jurisdictions should examine the
success and/or limitations of previous whole community engagement. In particular, jurisdictions
should assess whether partners representing the five preparedness mission areas and 31 core
capabilities participated. Communities are encouraged to engage representatives from different
homeland security and public safety disciplines and from outside government.
For each subsequent THIRA update, communities should also review how the threat and hazard
landscape has changed. In particular, consider the inclusion of new or emerging threats and
hazards, to include future risks (Step 1); updating threat and hazard context descriptions based on
demographic factors (Step 2); and revising capability targets based on current capability levels
(Step 3). Communities should refine resource requirements (Step 4) based on changes made in
previous steps and review how successful preparedness measures, such as protection or
mitigation efforts, affect their THIRAs.
Step 1: Identify the Threats and Hazards of
Concern
In Step 1 of the THIRA process, communities develop a list of community-specific threats and
hazards. This section:
Defines the types of threats and hazards that communities should consider
Introduces sources of threat and hazard information
Describes factors to consider when selecting threats and hazards for inclusion in the
THIRA
Provides guidance on updating previous THIRA submissions.
Figure 3: Step 1 of the THIRA Process
T yp e s o f T h r e at s a n d H az a rd s
Communities face a variety of threats and hazards. The three types of threats and hazards are:
Natural hazards, which result from acts of nature, such as hurricanes, earthquakes,
tornadoes, animal disease outbreak, pandemics, or epidemics.
5
CPG 201: Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide—Second Edition
Technological hazards, which result from accidents or the failures of systems and
structures, such as hazardous materials spills or dam failures.
Human-caused incidents, which result from the intentional actions of an adversary, such as
a threatened or actual chemical attack, biological attack, or cyber incident.
Table 2 provides examples of each type of threats and hazards.
Table 2: Example Threats and Hazards
Natural
Avalanche
Animal disease outbreak
Drought
Earthquake
Epidemic
Flood
Hurricane
Landslide
Pandemic
Tornado
Tsunami
Volcanic eruption
Wildfire
Technological
Airplane crash
Dam failure
Levee failure
Mine accident
Hazardous materials
release
Power failure
Radiological release
Train derailment
Human-caused
Biological attack
Chemical attack
Cyber incident
Explosives attack
Radiological attack
Sabotage
School and workplace
violence
Urban conflagration
Winter storm
S o u r ce s o f T h r e at an d H a z ard I n f o r m at i o n
Communities should consult a number of sources to identify threats and hazards during the
THIRA process. These sources may include:
State and local homeland security and emergency management laws, plans, policies, and
procedures
Existing threat and hazard assessments (e.g., HIRAs)
Records from previous incidents, including historical data
Local, regional, and neighboring community THIRAs
Analysis of critical infrastructure interdependencies, including disruptions and failures that
may originate elsewhere but produce cascading effects experienced locally (e.g., an electrical
power disruption that spreads both geographically and across sectors)
Intelligence fusion center bulletins and assessments
Whole community partners, such as:
6
•
Emergency management/homeland security agencies
•
Local and state hazard mitigation offices
•
Local or Regional National Weather Service offices
CPG 201: Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide—Second Edition
•
Tribal governments
•
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Regional Offices
•
Private-sector partners
•
Local/state fire, police, emergency medical services, and health departments
•
Major urban area and state fusion centers
•
Infrastructure owners and operators
•
U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Protective Security Advisors
•
DHS Regional Cyber Security Analysts
•
Volunteer Organizations Active in Disasters
•
Colleges/universities, and other research organizations.
Additional Online Sources of Threat and Hazard Information
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Areal Locations of Hazardous
Atmospheres (http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/aloha)
DHS OneView (https://gii.dhs.gov/OneView)
FEMA Hazus-MH (http://www.fema.gov/hazus)
FEMA Hurrevac (http://www.hurrevac.com)
U.S. Department of Energy LandScan (http://web.ornl.gov/sci/landscan)
National Weather Service Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes
(http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/surge/slosh.php)
NOAA Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Viewer (http://csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/tools/slrviewer)
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Debris Model
(http://eportal.usace.army.mil/sites/ENGLink/DebrisManagement/default.aspx)
FEMA Full-Spectrum Risk Knowledgebase (https://riskknowledge.fema.gov)
FEMA Lessons Learned Information Sharing (https://www.llis.dhs.gov)
F ac t o r s f o r S e l e c t i n g T h r e a t s a n d H a z a r d s
Communities should include only those threats and hazards of significant concern in their
THIRA. To identify threats and hazards of significant concern, consider two key factors:
likelihood of incident and significance of threat/hazard effects.
Factor #1: Likelihood of Incident
Likelihood is the chance of something happening, whether defined, measured, or estimated
objectively or subjectively. Communities should consider only those threats and hazards
that could plausibly occur.
As a starting point, communities should consider the threats and hazards that have historically
affected them, as well as those threats and hazards that exist regardless of historical occurrence
(e.g., earthquakes, industrial accidents, or intelligence-driven assessments of potential terrorist
attacks). This should include analyzing after-action reports and information about the root causes
of threats and hazards (e.g., major floods caused by inadequate levees), as well as consultation
7
CPG 201: Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide—Second Edition
with scientists and appropriate subject matter experts. Communities may also consider looking at
historical archives (e.g., at the local library) for reports of disasters in the community.
For threats and hazards for which it is difficult to estimate the likelihood of an incident (e.g.,
terrorism), communities should consider available intelligence data to determine inclusion in the
THIRA. Engaging state/local law enforcement or a major urban area or state fusion center can
provide the necessary insight into these types of events in order to focus on plausible …
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Airplane Crush THIRA – Kindly, do THIRA on the crashing of the turboprop plane in Clarence Center, New York. – Follow the 4-step process in the FEMA Guidel
Get an essay WRITTEN FOR YOU, Plagiarism free, and by an EXPERT!
Order Essay
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us

Top quality papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional academic writers

We have hired a team of professional writers experienced in academic and business writing. Most of them are native speakers and PhD holders able to take care of any assignment you need help with.

Free revisions

If you feel that we missed something, send the order for a free revision. You will have 10 days to send the order for revision after you receive the final paper. You can either do it on your own after signing in to your personal account or by contacting our support.

On-time delivery

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & confidential

We use several checkers to make sure that all papers you receive are plagiarism-free. Our editors carefully go through all in-text citations. We also promise full confidentiality in all our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

You are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper. Our academic experts will gladly help you with essays, case studies, research papers and other assignments.

Admissions

Admission help & business writing

You can be positive that we will be here 24/7 to help you get accepted to the Master’s program at the TOP-universities or help you get a well-paid position.

Reviews

Editing your paper

Our academic writers and editors will help you submit a well-structured and organized paper just on time. We will ensure that your final paper is of the highest quality and absolutely free of mistakes.

Reviews

Revising your paper

Our academic writers and editors will help you with unlimited number of revisions in case you need any customization of your academic papers