Air Force Test and Evaluation – F/A-22 Raptor Paper Write and submit a one-page SINGLE-SPACED abstract on the major acquisition program F/A-22, focusing on

Air Force Test and Evaluation – F/A-22 Raptor Paper Write and submit a one-page SINGLE-SPACED abstract on the major acquisition program F/A-22, focusing on the T&E aspect of that program.

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•Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point. Air Force
Test & Evaluation
GuideBook
HQ USAF/TE
Air Force T&E Management Guide, Version 1.0
December, 2004
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
6
1.1. Purpose and Scope
6
1.2. Other Mandatory Documents
6
1.3. Updating this Document
6
1.4. How to Use This Document
6
1.5. Establishing the Undeniable Need for T&E
7
Chapter 2 HIERARCHY OF TEST AND EVALUATION POLICY AND GUIDANCE
9
2.1. Overview
9
2.2. Title 10 and the “Testing Statutes”
9
2.3. New Era of Collaboration
16
Chapter 3 RELATIONSHIPS WITH OSD
17
3.1. Director, Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E)
17
3.2. OSD T&E Oversight
18
3.3. Interoperability Watch List
18
Chapter 4 T&E SUPPORT TO THE REQUIREMENTS PROCESS
20
4.1. Operational Requirements Development and Review
20
4.2. Review of Requirements Policies impacting T&E
20
4.3. AOA Participation, Development and Support
21
Chapter 5 T&E SUPPORT TO THE ACQUISITION PROCESS
22
5.1. Planning for Evolutionary Acquisition (EA), Incremental and Spiral Development
22
5.2. Testing In Support of EA, Incremental and Spiral Development
22
5.3. Program Management Directive (PMD)
22
5.4. Integrated Support Plan (ISP)
22
5.5. COA Development
23
5.6. Technology Development Strategy (TDS)
23
5.7. Test and Evaluation Strategy
23
5.8. Test and Evaluation Master Plans (TEMP)
24
5.9. Single Acquisition Management Plan (SAMP)
24
5.10. Integrated T&E Inputs to Request For Proposal (RFP)
24
Chapter 6 INTEGRATED TESTING (SEAMLESS VERIFICATION) PROCESS
25
6.1. Discovery
25
6.2 Early Involvement
25
Air Force T&E Management Guide, Version 1.0
December, 2004
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6.3. Integrated Test Planning
25
6.4. Integrated Test Execution and Reporting
27
Chapter 7 INTEGRATED TEST TEAM TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
28
7.1. Why the Changed Terminology?
28
7.2. ITT Formation and Management
29
7.3. Integrated Initial Test Design (IITD)
30
7.4. Common T&E Database and Data Management
30
7.5. Data Management
30
7.6. Certification Readiness for Operational Testing
31
Chapter 8 INTEGRATED TEST TEAM (ITT) PRODUCTS
33
8.1. Test and Evaluation Strategy (TES)
33
8.2. Test and Evaluation Master Plan (TEMP) Development
33
8.3. Single Acquisition Management Plan (SAMP)
33
8.4. Integrated Test Concept
34
8.5. Integrated Test Plan (ITP)
34
Chapter 9 DEVELOPMENTAL TEST AND EVALUATION
36
9.1 Purpose
36
9.2 Benefit of DT&E to Acquisition Managers
36
9.3 Benefit of DT&E to the War Fighter
37
9.4 Guidance Covering DT&E
37
9.5 Persistent Involvement of Testers in Acquisition
37
9.6 Important Early DT Involvement
37
9.7. DT&E Templates
38
Chapter 10 OPERATIONAL TESTING FOR AQUISITION
40
10.1 Initial Test Design
40
10.2. Operational Test – Test Concept (OT TC)
40
10.3. Operational Test Plan
41
10.4. Operational Test Readiness Review
41
10.5. Contractor Involvement in OT&E
41
10.6. Working with Contractor Testers
43
10.7. Government Oversight
43
10.8. Contractor Responsibilities
43
10.9. Limitations on Contractor Involvement in OT&E
43
Air Force T&E Management Guide, Version 1.0
December, 2004
3
10.10. System Contractors
44
10.11. System Contractor Support to OT&E
44
10.12. Support Contractors
44
10.13. Executing OT
45
10.14. Report OT
45
10.15. MAJCOM Operational Testing
45
10.16 TD&Es
46
10.17. WSEP
47
Chapter 11 SPACE SYSTEMS TEST AND EVALUATION
50
11.1. National Security Space (NSS) System Acquisition Process
50
11.2. NSS Acquisition Phases
50
11.3. Key Decision Points
50
Figure 11.1. NSS 03-01 vs. DoDI 5000.2 Acquisition Phases
51
Chapter 12 SECURING T&E RESOURCES
52
12.1. Test Capabilities and Facilities
52
Figure 12.1 T&E Resource Needs Through Program Development
52
12.2. Test and Training Ranges
52
12.3. Air Force Test and Training Ranges
53
Chapter 13 DEFICIENCY REPORTING
54
13.1. Accurate Categorization of DRs
54
13.2. Contractor-Based DR Systems
54
13.3. When to Start Deficiency Reporting
54
Chapter 14 MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS
55
14.1. Testing in Support of Rapid Response Process (RRP)
55
14.2. Foreign Materiel Program (FMP)
55
Attachment 1 GLOSSARY OF REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION
56
References
56
Abbreviations and Acronyms
58
WSEP—Weapon System Evaluation Program www—World Wide Web Terms
61
Attachment 2 LEGISLATION IMPACTING TEST AND EVALUATION
71
Title 10 USC-Section 139 — Director of Operational Test and Evaluation
71
Title 10 USC-Sec.2366 — Major Systems and Munitions Programs: — Survivability Testing and
Lethality Testing Required Before Full-Scale Production
72
Title 10 USC-Sec.2399 — Operational Test and Evaluation of Defense Acquisition Programs
Air Force T&E Management Guide, Version 1.0
December, 2004
4
74
Title 10 USC-Sec.2400 — Low-Rate Initial Production of New Systems
76
Title 10 USC-Sec.2302 — Definitions [excerpts relevant to T&E]
78
Title 10 USC-Sec.2430 — Major Defense Acquisition Program Defined
78
Chapter 140-Sec.2377 — Preference for Acquisition of Commercial Items
78
Figure A2.1. Cross References in Title 10’s Testing Statutes.
80
Attachment 3 REVIEWING CAPABILITIES BASED REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENTS
81
A3.1. Background
81
A3.2
Initial Capability Document (ICD)
82
A3.3
Capability Development Document (CDD)
83
A3.4 Capability Production Document (CPD)
86
A3.5
88
Other Good Sources of Information
Attachment 4 REVIEWING PROGRAM MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTS
89
Attachment 5 TEMPLATE: INTEGRATED TEST TEAM (ITT) CHARTER
91
A5.1. The ITT Charter.
91
A5.2. Template.
91
Attachment 6 TEMPLATE: TEST AND EVALUATION STRATEGY (TES)
93
A6.1. Content Coming Soon!.
93
Attachment 7 TEMPLATE: TEST AND EVALUATION MASTER PLAN (TEMP)
94
A7.1. Signature Requirements for Multi-Service TEMPs.
94
A7.2. Recommend Signature Page Template.
94
Attachment 8 TEMPLATE: OPERATIONAL TEST PLAN
97
Attachment 9 TEMPLATE: OPERATIONAL TEST FINAL REPORT
100
Attachment 10 AIR FORCE T&E RESOURCES and ORGANIZATIONS
102
A10.1
AFMC Key Test Facilities
102
Figure A10.1 Major Range Test Facility Base
Air Force T&E Management Guide, Version 1.0
December, 2004
103
5
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Purpose and Scope
This Guide contains useful information, guidance, best practices, and lessons learned about test and
evaluation (T&E) and related subjects that were not published in Air Force Instruction (AFI) 99103, Capabilities Based Test and Evaluation, and other 99-series documents. While it is intended to
supplement and expand on the policies and guidance in official HQ USAF/TE documents, this
Guide is NOT directive in nature. The Guide is a compilation of information from many sources
and, while we have made every attempt to ensure its contents are in line with Air Force and OSD
level guidance, some inconsistencies may exist. If any are found, please contact AF/TEP –
suggested changes are appreciated.
1.2. Other Mandatory Documents
Because of AFI 99-103’s broad applicability across many functional areas, this Guide must be used
in conjunction with policies and best practices from those other communities. As a minimum,
readers must be familiar with the following: DoD Instruction (DoDI) 5000.2, Operation of the
Defense Acquisition System; National Security Space (NSS) Acquisition Policy 03-01; Chairman of
the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction (CJCSI) 3170.01D, Joint Capabilities Integration and
Development System, CJCS Manual (CJCSM) 3170.01A, Operation of the Joint Capabilities
Integration and Development System; AFI 10-601, Capabilities Based Requirements Development,
and AFI 63-101, Operation of the Capabilities Based Acquisition System.
1.3. Updating this Document
User participation is essential for developing and updating this guide. All Air Force testers are
strongly encouraged to contribute by submitting new or revised material directly to HQ USAF/TEP,
1530 Air Force Pentagon, Washington DC 20330-1530. Electronic inputs may be sent to AF/TEP
Workflow (AFTEP.workflow@pentagon.af.mil). Acquisition and requirements community inputs
are also welcome. This guide will be updated as often as practical. Inputs should be applicable to a
broad range of T&E or related activities and provide more than just a narrow view of any specific
T&E activity. Do not submit entire documents for inclusion in this Guide, but send excerpts and
reference those documents instead. Edit long documents down to a few salient ideas and pages or
paragraphs by omitting unnecessary detail. Include a suggested chapter location, or recommend a
new chapter in which the information should be located.
1.4. How to Use This Document
AFI 99-103 gives a broad, horizontal view of the entire acquisition process, and this guide provides
the in-depth view and “between the lines” explanations. Much like AFI 99-103, parts of this
document are organized chronologically while the rest is organized by subject matter. For example,
there are chapters describing the integrated T&E process as it begins during the Pre-Concept
Refinement Phase, continues from Milestone (MS) A through the Production and Deployment
Phase, and culminates in the Operations and Support Phase. Details about other elements of the
T&E process are collected in the remaining chapters under appropriate subject headings. The
chapters that mirror the flow of AFI 99-103 and Figure 1.1 below provide greater depth and detail.
Air Force T&E Management Guide, Version 1.0
December, 2004
6
MS
MS
MS
A
B
C
Concept
Refinement
Technology
Development
Production
& Deployment
System Development
& Demonstration
LRIP
ICD Stage I ICD Stage II
FSA
Plan
FSA
AoA
Plan
CDD
AoA
Operations
& Support
FRP
CPD
AoA
Modifications
AoA
AFROCC
RSR
JROC
AFROCC
AFROCC
RSR
RSR
JROC
FOC
IOC
AFROCC
RSR
JROC
Capabilities Based Requirements Development (AFI 10-601)
Select
ADM
MDA
SAMP
SAMP
PMD
TDS
Concept
Decision
SAMP
ISP
DAB
Operations & Support
DRR
DAB
ISP
DAB
FRP
Decision
COA
Operation of Capabilities Based Acquisition System (AFI 63-101)
T&E Strategy
TEMP
EOA
Tester Involvement
ITT Stand Up
OA
TEMP
TEMP
OA
LFT&E
IOT&E
Integrated Government T&E
Contractor Testing
FDE
FOT&E
OT&E Certification
Figure 1.1 Capabilities Based Test and Evaluation (AFI 99-103)
NOTE: All acronyms in this figure are defined in Attachment 1.
1.4.1. Figure 1.1 was developed through close collaboration between HQ USAF/TEP, SAF/AQXA,
and HQ USAF/XORD. It shows the acquisition process as the “master clock” for the integration of
requirements, acquisition, and T&E events and activities. Figure 1.1 represents flow of a notional
program through the acquisition process and does not precisely pinpoint the locations of every
possible event, document, or activity. Many events, documents, and activities are not shown to
maintain readability. This Guide explains when and where omitted items fit into the processes.
1.4.2. Determining what you should be doing at any point in a program is simple if you know what
acquisition phase your program is in. Key activities taking place in each process are stacked
vertically as indicated by the dashed vertical lines. For example, if program XYZ is approaching a
MS-C decision, you can see what kind of T&E support documents and activities are required by
looking vertically down the MS-C line.
1.5. Establishing the Undeniable Need for T&E
T&E must demonstrate capabilities today that will be needed tomorrow in combat. When a system
is called for combat duty, the need is immediate and there’s no time to reconsider if the system will
operate as designed. Warfighters need assurance that when they risk their lives, the systems
provided will do the job for which they were designed.
Air Force T&E Management Guide, Version 1.0
December, 2004
7
1.5.1. Program managers (PM) are given responsibility to develop and/or sustain systems in the
most cost effective and efficient manner possible consistent with the public’s trust and the
warfighters’ safety and welfare. PMs must somehow gain data and knowledge about systems in
their charge to ensure those systems are progressing as national leaders direct and expect. T&E is
the principal means of gaining the required empirical knowledge to keep national leaders informed
and ensure programs are progressing as planned.
1.5.2. The purpose of T&E in general is to mature system designs, manage risks, identify and help
resolve deficiencies as early as possible, and ensure systems are operationally effective and suitable.
The Air Force T&E community plans for and conducts integrated T&E as an efficient continuum
known as seamless verification in collaboration with the requirements and acquisition communities.
1.5.3 A continuous flow of credible T&E data about the development and continued sustainment of
combat systems is needed to keep systems and warfighters ready for combat. Warfighters must plan
before the fight how they will engage the enemy. If equipment deficiencies exist and are both
known and documented, war planners and war fighters can plan around such deficiencies. Again,
T&E information is crucial link in this critical process.
Figure 1.2. The Undeniable Need for Testing.
Air Force T&E Management Guide, Version 1.0
December, 2004
8
Chapter 2
HIERARCHY OF TEST AND EVALUATION POLICY AND GUIDANCE
2.1. Overview
Statutory direction for T&E flows down from Congress through the Office of Management and
Budget (OMB) and the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), to the Department of Defense
(DoD). The DoD interprets public laws, statutes, Executive Orders, and overarching policies and
develops and implements its own policy using DoD Directives (DoDD), DoD Instructions (DoDI),
DoD Regulations (DoD-R), and policy memos. These regulations and policies expand upon statute
and direct how the DoD carries out congressional intent. DoD direction may be more restrictive
than congressional direction, but can never be less restrictive. Often additional requirements are
added at department or component level. Within DoD, congressional direction to the Secretary of
Defense (SECDEF) is frequently delegated in writing to various offices within the Secretary’s staff.
2.1.1. Service headquarters further interpret congressional and DoD policies by developing Servicespecific T&E policies and guidance that direct how T&E will be carried out in each Service. Service
organizational units develop their own organizational policies, and so the hierarchy of direction
flows down to the lowest practical units conducting T&E. Again, each step of the hierarchy can
impose more restrictions than the level above, but can never be less restrictive.
2.1.2. Specific Service T&E policy documents are listed below so that testers working on multiService programs may read and understand the policies of their counterparts in the other Services.
2.1.2.1. The Air Force issued Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 99-1, Test and Evaluation
Policy, as overarching T&E policy directly supported by AFI 99-103, Capabilities Based Test and
Evaluation, AFI 99-109, Test Resource Planning, all developed by HQ USAF/TE.
2.1.2.2. The Army issued Army Regulation 73-1, Test and Evaluation Policy, and Department
of the Army Pamphlet 73-1, Test and Evaluation in Support of Systems Acquisition, both developed
by HQ Dept of the Army, Test and Evaluation Management Agency (TEMA).
2.1.2.3. The Navy issued Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV) Instruction 5000.2,
Implementation of Mandatory Procedures for Major and non-Major Defense Acquisition Programs
and Major and non-Major Information Technology Acquisition Programs, developed by OP 091.
2.1.2.4. The Marine Corps issued Marine Corps Order 3960.2B, Marine Corps Operational
Test and Evaluation Activity. The MCO is focused on OT&E and should be used in conjunction
with SECNAV 5000.2.
2.1.2.5. The four operational test agencies (OTA) collectively issued a Memorandum of
Agreement [MOA] on Multi-Service Operational Test and Evaluation that is updated annually.
2.2. Title 10 and the “Testing Statutes”
Congress was concerned about past abuses where the DoD inappropriately rushed systems into
production without adequate testing. They gave high priority to testing requirements, creating four
key statutes in Title 10 that specifically address T&E, the full text of which is in Attachment 2,
Legislation Impacting Test and Evaluation. Each of these statutes gives mandatory direction for
testers. Although relatively short, they are often misunderstood, misquoted, or misused. Additional
statutes are cited that help explain the terms used in these four key statutes. Following is a brief
Air Force T&E Management Guide, Version 1.0
December, 2004
9
history of each, why they were enacted, explanations of difficult subsections, and commonly
misunderstood concepts. Excerpts are taken from the Acquisition Law Advisory Panel’s Report to
the United States Congress. 1 These statutes are occasionally updated via changes in Public Law
(P.L.).
2.2.1. Section 139, Director of Operational Test and Evaluation.
2.2.1.1. This statute created the Director, OT&E (DOT&E) in 1983 and articulated his
responsibilities.
2.2.1.2 See Attachment 2 of this document for more information.
2.2.2. Section 2366, Major Systems and Munitions Programs; — Survivability Testing and
Lethality Testing Required Before Full-Scale Production.
2.2.2.1. Originally enacted in the FY 1987 National Defense Authorization Act, Title 10
§2366 required survivability and lethality testing to be carried out sufficiently early to allow design
deficiencies to be corrected prior to full-rate production.2 Senate and House conferees stated their
belief that “live-fire testing is a valuable tool for determining the inherent strengths and weaknesses
of adversary, U.S. and allied weapon systems. The conferees intend that the Secretary of Defense
implement this section in a manner which encourages the conduct of full-up vulnerability and
lethality tests under realistic combat conditions, first at the sub-scale level as sub-scale systems are
developed, and later at the full-scale level mandated in this legislation. [ ] The conferees intend
this type of developmental testing to be performed as part of the responsibilities of the Under
Secretary of Defense for Acquisition.3 (italics added)
2.2.2.2. This section was implemented in the DoD 5000-series and now appears in the Defense
Acquisition Guidebook.
2.2.2.3. While all Services agree that LFT&E is absolutely necessary, the Air Force maintains
that the statute cannot be applied equally to all types of weapon systems. Different systems have
significantly different survivability and vulnerability requirements and combat tactics after being hit
by enemy munitions. For example, tanks and ships are designed so they can sustain multiple hits
from enemy fire and still remain in the fight. In contrast, aircraft are designed such that when they
take a hit, they leave the battle space and return to base and therefore cannot be tested using the
same LFT&E strategy, or using the same test plans that might be used for tanks or ships.
2.2.2.4. Disagreement often occurs about what kinds of system modifications or upgrades
“affect significantly the survivability” of the system when determining if LFT&E is required. How
stringently should the statute be enforced? Some changes significantly impact overall survivability
Some of this section’s information comes from “Streamlining Defense Acquisition Laws, a
Report of the Acquisition Law Advisory Panel to the United States Congress, January, 1993,” also
known as the “Section 800 Report.” See Chapter 3, Service Specific and Major Systems Statutes.
This report gives a brief summary and background of each statute, how the statutes are carried out
in practice, and recommendations and justification for changes to the statutes. The Panel’s work is
instructive because it illuminates many contentious issues and problems with these stat…
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